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Sociology 2172A/B
Gale Cassidy

Advertising and Society January 8 , 2013 Introduction 3000-3500 ads a day before the Internet “Advertising is a very considerable part of our total culture. It is not separable from any of the other activities of our world”-Marshall McLuhan 68 “All advertising advertises advertising”- McLuhan - Advertising is the most powerful force affecting people’s behaviour - Does it create or reflect our culture? - Concerned with many aspects of sociology, norms and behaviour - Roles and status in society - Social advertising changes behaviour ex. Smoking, MADD - Certain images come with certain products - Demographic determined by what products you buy - Method/agent of social control: mechanism of society that get you to behave a certain way, monitors behaviour (ex. Police, parents) Why advertising is studied in Sociology 1. Distribution of resources (economic and social) - Vast amount of money spent (ex. Superbowl) 2. Impact on society - Ability to reach a broad audience - Contributor to our cultural content 3. Agent of social control - Creates vivid images of what our behaviour should be like - What’s acceptable - Roles - What it means to be an adult in our society - Reflects and creates culture - Advertising represents a privileged form of discourse Way of telling us what the world is all about Holds a special prominence in our lives Where did we use to get our information from (political, religious) These influences still exist today but their moral authority has diminished - Now we look to objects to say who we are and what role we play A lot of our discourse is through objects Get these messages through mass media Public Opinion - What has greater influence on society? Schools 54% Advertising 42% - Most people are ambivalent towards advertising - Most advertising is an insult to one’s intelligence Yes 60% - Half the people asked say that you don’t need advertising for good products, they will sell themselves th January 15 , 2013 Types of Advertising Ambient advertising - Intrusive ads in public places - Most common form of advertising - Marketers are seeking out new advertising vehicles - Ad clutter: ads are everywhere, our environment is inundated with advertising, cluttered with ambient ads - Ad fatigue: exhausted by ads, ads have to stand out from the others similar and different - Criticisms within the industry Bob Garfield: ‘environment pollutants’ Some worry there will be a backlash against advertising In the 80s there were more unique types of advertising, but the technology then was not as advanced One company rented farmers cows - Costs of traditional advertising are extremely high (TV) - Internet useful to target a specific population - Ex. Ad for gym, Louis Vuitton (created replicas of their bags instead of construction), Nike bus shelter, bench, ESPN urinal, Plastic surgery cup, coffee sewer - Every private spot has been inundated with ads - Social advertising - Drunk driving ads - Ex. Parking spot reserved for drunk drivers - Some ads may imply that younger people are not very bright - Flick off campaign - Coffee maker in vending machineGet a job - Advertising in the sky is useful but expensive Worthwhile Readership is a little over 80% Retention rate is 79.1%, recalling what the ad was about Hardly any other medium is this effective - Outer space Capable of being recognized by a human being on he surface of the Earth without the aid of a technological device Pizza hut logo on the side of a Russian rocket 1 one st Banners on Mylar plastic, ads will appear to be as large as the moon 80% of Cokes products are sold outside the US FAA has delayed this “advertisements could destroy the darkness of the night sky, impede astronomical observations, adverse effect” May be environmental concerns Stealth Endorsers - Use or wear products in public appearances, interviews - Ex. Tiger Woods as the Nike sponsor, Jeff Gordon for Pepsi Never directly address the product, the general public has become cynical so when they directly say it it’s less believable - Use of celebrities to sell can be risky, have to put the product with someone who is reputable Brad Pitt for Chanel, most successful using a celebrity - They become branded with the product - Using celebrities to sell is not very effective - Stealth endorsers are not promoting the product they just happen to be wearing it/drinking it, etc. Naming Rights - Turning public spaces into commodities - Ex. John Labbatt Centre/Budweiser Gardens, Rogers Centre Pay a lot of money to have naming rights - Problem with naming rights May be a problem with a certain company naming a building Ex. U of G rejecting the Molson Centre, Exeter pool - a dating website for married people Wants naming rights for Meadowlands after city of Phoenix wouldn’t play ball Offered 10 mil to the airport, stadium ”Life is short have an affair” Body Tattooing - Offering space on bodies - Most are not permanent - People in the industry think it’s more of a fad that won’t catch on - More sellers than buyers - Best suited to more edgier companies, the youth market - Build brand awareness rather than get out a specific message - Ex. Save Martha - A lot of the tattooing is done by online companies , woman doing it for son to go to school San Francisco restaurant offered free lunch for life - Tattooing on athletes Nevada Athletic Commission (NAC) banned this: “If they want to advertise on the trunks, it is fine with us. But we feel that the body is not meant to advestise” nd rd 1 reason: demeaning to the sport, 2 : thought the ink may be unsafe, 3 : distracting to the judges Boxers wanted temporary tattoos, paid between 5000-10000 depending on how popular they were Large amount of publicity from advertising - Any kind of body tattooing would be suited to athletes who are lone athletes (Running) rather than on a team Product Placement - Not a recent phenomenon - First was in a silent black and white movie - Increased in the extent that the amount of money advertisers use, how we’re inundated with them - Most successful with ET (80s), left a roll of Reese’s Pieces behind After the movie the sales increased by about 30% M&M’s was invited to be in the movie but they turned it down - Trailer Park Boys would blur out products because they were opposed to product placement - Used extensively in the early 80s, TV/film had to look realistic - James Bond film Tomorrow never Dies 100 million dollars in product placement Largest amount for product placement In the later films companies would pay a greater amount to replace the products 90% there is not an exchange of money, prop for movie and advertising for product - New ways to integrate advertising and content - Product placement has become so much of movie and TV - TV producers are looking for more and more way to get their message across - Strategy of basing a show on a product Ex. Modern Family episode about the iPad Toy Story - Ability to buy products at the end of the show Will and Grace: character wore a polo shirt and the network ran a clip telling viewers to go to the polo website and buy the shirt Polo was 50% owned by NBC, sales increased - Interactive TV Able to click on something a star is wearing and order it directly Show becomes a venue for advertising products - Movie Theatres Very successful Cinema Billboard Network: captive audience watching advertisements waiting for movie - Buena Vista Distribute Disney movies Prohibited advertisements before movies in early 90s Still advertise for Disney on DVDs Ralph Nader: fights for consumer rights January 22, 2013 Consumerism “We invented credit cards, suburban shopping malls, and day care just to make our consumerism more efficient. We sent our wives, husbands, children, and grandparents out to work, just to pay for all the stuff we wanted-needed-to buy”- Korten’s When Corporations Rule the World 1995 1950: “We spend money we’ve earned to buy things we need to impress people we like” 2000: “We spend money we haven’t earned to buy things we don’t need to impress people we don’t like” What is Consumerism? - Consumerism is the preoccupation with the acquisition of goods to satisfy needs through material things - We think that purchasing products will make us happy, successful, etc. - Have we developed unsustainable consumption patterns? - How have we reached this point? - Our need to consumer is destroying the planet, resources being destroyed in order to sustain our lifestyle - Advertising perpetuates this machine that has us buying more and more products - Population in industrialized world: 20%, consuming 80% of our resources - From a very early age TV, film, etc. are telling kids there are new, expensive, popular things you need to have - Consumerism shows us that spending replaces things that used to be important Spiritual fulfillment through shopping - Cycle of consumerism AdvertisementPurchaseIndebtednessAlienationAdvertisement Suggests an item will bring you happiness Indebtedness: consumer has less money to spend, pattern where you are buying stuff you can’t really afford Cycle continues, can become an addiction - Neuromarketing: looking at brain patterns while watching an ad Role of Advertising - Manipulate us into buying something with little reflection - People remember few ads Ads work to convince you to buy a product not necessarily the particular product being advertised - Advertisements 1.Appeal to our insecurities Period of social insecurity: where we are told we need certain products to be acceptable (ex. Personal hygiene products) 2.Solve our problems: solution to whatever we need 3.Achieve happiness and freedom 4.Restrain our distastes: makes us not see things as clearly as we should Ex. Car advertising, lead us to believe there is no consequence for nature Presented so we don’t look at the negative side of it Lower-class marketing Marketing Experts - Associate success and social standing with a product - People in low social classes don’t have as much money, advertisers will target them suggesting that they can by certain products to appear like they are well off Lower-income individuals - Buy cars, cell phones, clothing - Rather than having the incentive to save/invest money, they are convinced to buy products - Instant gratification What are the Consequences? - Consumerism: Material goods - Decreased savings Spending money instead of saving - Consumer debt Record high of 1.5 trillion dollars in household debt, beginning of 2011 Rising much faster than incomes - Personal bankruptcies At an all time high Increasing more rapidly than business bankruptcies - Credit card ownership 40% Canadians with credit cards don’t know the interest they are being charged Avg. Canadian has 3 credit cards Amount put on credit cards is increasing The Store is Born - 1870s: Marshall Fields in Chicago, John Wanamaker in Philadelphia Beginning of shopping as a leisure activity Created department stores This was in the mid 1800s: early 1800s was the Industrial revolution, prior to this there was not much There used to be more demand, now we have advertising to create demand - Became destinations - Community centered Buy Now, Pay Later In 1919 - General Motors Acceptance Corporation Buy a vehicle but pay for it over time - Prior to this you had to save up - Beginning of the Consumer culture: automobiles Henry Ford: you could have his cars in “any colour you wanted, as long as it was black” Demand succeeded availability Waiting for the vehicle to be produced 1925- The Beginning of Consumer Culture - General Motors suggested the yearly automobile model change - Waited for what was going to be new in the year - Didn’t matter that the vehicle was still working, people would get a new vehicle because it was a new colour, had a new feature, etc. Post WWII - 1945: great deal of pent up consumer energy - Not a lot of stuff available during the war, factories focused on making stuff for the war - Advertisers promised that there would be a lot of stuff available - 1950s: labour saving devices (ex. Blenders, washing machines, vacuums) Promoted to women, cut down on housework But the standards for housework increased - Sense of optimism in the country, for the future, victory over WWII - Economic growth took off Helped perpetuate our consumer culture - Credit cards in the 1950s Diners club: promoted to travelling salesmen for convenience on the road Not initially for people to buy things they could not afford Early 60s: other companies got on board, advertised as time saving devices Women originally could not get credit cards or bank loans 1960s Hippies rebelled Ex. Vietnam war, fighting against racism, the political structure, corporate and consumer cultures Own fashion statements, would not go
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