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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2173A/B
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture51Popculture1FromFrankfurttoBirmingham22042014034300Marxsworkinspired2fields1PoliticalEconomy2IdeologyoTwodiverseschoolstransformedMarxismcriticaltheorySchool1InstituteforsocialresearchattheGoetheUniversityinFrankfurtshiftedtoUSbeforewaroFoundedbyGermanJewishphilosophersoLatetwentiesearlythirtiesoTwomostimportantfiguresinthemovementaMaxHorkheimerheadeduptheinstituteduringthemostinfluentialperiodbTheodorAdornoproduceditsbestknownwritingsoncultureSchool2CenterforCulturalStudiesCCSatBirminghamUniversityinBritainoGroupofinterdisciplinarymaverickswhichcoalescedintheearly70soLeadershipofStuartHallbothgroupswerecontentwiththeextenttowhichculturefunctionsasaninstrumentofoppressionbyindoctrinatingpeoplewithaworldviewdesignedtopropupthestatusquoTheFrankfurtSchoolPopcultureisacarrierofdominantideologyFirstgenerationofMarxistswhohadtoconfronttherealitythatrevolutionwasnotimmanentDecideditwasmorefruitfultoconcentrateonexposingtheflawsinthestatusquothantowasteenergyspinningutopianvisionsofanunknowablefuturedetailedanalysisofMostnotablecontributionofthegroupstocommunicationstheorythemeaningworkingsofcultureDividedcultureintogoodbadcategoriesoGoodbourgeoisartithelpedtobuildresistancetotheforcesofconformityoppressionoBadMassculturefacilitatedoppressionthroughprofoundpsychologicalconditioningEssaybyAdornoandHorkheimeronCultureIndustryoStatesthatonceculturebecomesmassproduceditsproductsbecomehomogenizeditsconsumersdotoooStandardizedcultureproducesstandardizedmentalitystiflesimpulsetorebeloThereisafalseillusionofvariationbecauseofproliferationofofferingspleasuremaximizedtoprecludethoughtrepetitionishypnoticpleasureratherthanthoughtoCriticismsfocusonelitismoversimplifiedunderstandingofhowculturalmaterialsareproducedusedoBernardGendronworkofproducingaculturaltextisdifferentthantheworkofproducingacommodityegFridgeBotharemassproducedbuttextisproductofanindividualactofcreationandtheendresultisreproducedinquantityCritisizesAdornoforhisfailuretoconsiderstandardizationasasourceorpleasureandanexpressionofridgiditySaysAdornoalsofailedtorecognizehowmuchvariationwaspossiblewithinthelimitsofstandardizationoAdornosuseofamanufacturingmetaphorledtomisunderstandingofthewholeprocessofculturalconsumptionconfusioncausedbchewasnotaconsumerofsuchmaterialhimselfelitismoGendrondoesnotdismissAdornosclaimsthatstandardizationcanservedominantintereststheirintimateassociationwithconstantrepetitionpluggingandselfadvertisemententrenchescodesofthedominantculturemorepowerfullythannonstandardizedcomponentsoIdeologyiscarriedintheformaswellascontentofculturehascontinuedtobeanimportanttenantofcriticalculturalstudiesrighttothepresentdayoApproachwouldbemorepowerfulifitgavemoreweighttothespecificityofbothtextscontentsBirminghamSchoolOpenedthepossibilitythattheinfluenceisntasseamlessmonolithicashadbeenassumedAlsocalledBritishculturalstudiesbridgedthegapbetweenliterarystudiesandsociologyoAdoptedamoreanthropologicalviewofculturenotasadefinedsetofelitetextsbutasapervasiveirreducibleandlargelyunconsciousaspectofeverydaylifeoTheoreticalinfluencesrangedfromcriticaltheoryborrowedfrompoststructuralismsemioticspsychoanalysisfeminismoMostimportantinnovationshiftingthefocusfromproductionreceptionnotjustintheoryMaincontributionArticulatingtheimportanceofanddevelopingmethodsforappliedstudiesoMainpriorityinvestigatehowpeopleactuallyuseculturetheybroughtaneworientationtothegenerallyhighlyabstractcriticaltraditiontheyspentextendedperiodsinteractingwiththegroupstheywerestudyinggaveprimaryemphasistothepersonalaccountsoftheirrespondentsImportanceoffindingsnowVSinthe70soRevelation70sshiftfromanaestheticdefinitionofculturepoliticaloneoOnethingbothcriticaltheoristsaesthetesagreeuponwasthatmassculturewasbothdebaseddangerousoFRLeavispopulationfictionincreasesunfitnessbyhabituatinghimtoweakevasionstotherefusaltofacerealityatalloRealculturewaslivedcultureHallitwasvaluableinsofarandonlyinsofarasitgavemeaningtotheexperienceofthepeoplewholiveditoPhilipTayloractivitiesthatcharacterizedworkingclassculturewereactofresistancetoadominantsocialorderorcreativeresponsestooppressionandinjusticep158CametotheforeatatimewhenantiestablishmentsfeelingwasatitspeakinEuropeUSartistsrejectingsterileprescriptivenessofhighmodernismandwhenUniversitieswerefilledwithdisaffectedyoungpeopledisgustedwithmaterialismhypocrisybanalityoftheireldersoThenotionofeverydaylifeasthesourceofmeaningdominatedculturalstudiesforthenext30yearsKeyFindingsoftheBirminghamSchool1Peoplearenotpassiverecipientsofculturalcontenttheyengageactivelyinprocessesofselectioninterpretationappropriation2ThewaygivenindividualsuseculturediffersratherradicallyaccordingtosocialpositioningegclassgenderoMenwantillusionofcontrollikeclosedtextwithaclearresolutionmorelikelytofeelaffrontedbydirectaddress3Gratificationsderivedfromculturalconsumptionextendwellbeyondtheinitialinteractionegimagesofzombiesgluedtotheirsolitarypleasuresvssocialinteraction
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