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Midterm Study Notes.odt

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Sociology 2206A/B
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Social Research Study NotesExam Tuesday October 22 in classChapter 1 Doing Social ResearchResearch is a method we utilize to find answers to questions we have about the worldsocial research is a pricess in which people combine a set of principles outlooks ideas ie methodology with a collection of specific practise techniques and strategies ie a method of inquiry to produce knowledge Knowledge AttainmentSourceSomething is true becauseProblemAuthority ex Doctors profs Because someone in authoryoverestimated scope of knowledgepriests says sodisagreement among authoritiesoverstepping realm of experience misuse of authority blind acceptance to undermine halo effectTraditionthe authority of the Because its always been thatdistortion through timepast ex Belief systems social way things changenormsCommonsenseOf your everyday reasoning logical fallacies we overlook the big picture coin example contradictions everyone has a different idea same problems as tradition Media MythsOf the media TV movies inaccurate reflection of realitynewspaper news ectjournalists constraintsIn the News box A Mediatoo influential have a strong effectMyth the myth still exists that there is a link betweentend to perpetuate the myths of vaccinations and autism and it a culture continues to be perpetuated bymedia hype can make a smaller influential celebritiesproblem look like a big onecompeting interrested use the media to win public support Personal ExperienceYouve seenexperienced it overgeneralize occurs when some evidence supports a belief but a person falsely assumes it applies to other situations as wellerrors made when usingselective observation the personal experience as an tendency to take notice of certain alternative to sciencepeople or events based on past experiencesattitudespremature closure occurs when a person feels he or she has the answers and does not need to listen seek or raise questions any longer halo effect a person overgeneralizes from what heshe accepts as true and lets it rub off onto other areas they speak outside their own expertise Sciencea social institution and a way to produce knowledgeData empirical evidence a scientist gathers in accordance with rules and proceduresEmpirical Evidence observations scientist experience through the senses can be direct or indirect Scientific Community collection opf people who practise science and a set of norms behaviours and attitudes that blind them together Aspects of the Scientific Methodis it the ideas rules techniques and approaches that the scientific community usesEmpiricism or a reliance on the sensesa priori statement of methodological principles must know what criteria will be proof or evidence of a causal relationship before we start doing the research the replicability principle must know what is a fluke and what is actually a causal relationshipthe communicability of results you publish your work disseminate your knowledgean institutionalized scepticism always be sceptical about research findingsthe potential to falsify any hypothesis must be able to distinguish research questions from your morals and values Discovery and Justificationcontext of discovery we may think of discoveries and insights in science as coming from a variety of sources that may of may not be rational or methodical the irrational form of sciencecontext of justification the idea of HOW we assess the truth of statements in science we follow the scientific method Research Process1Select a topic2Research questionfocus the topic into a research question 3Research design4gather data5data analysishelps you to see any patterns and give meaning to or interpret the data 6interpret results 7disseminate the resultsyou may not necessarily go from step 17
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