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Research Methods Final.docx

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Sociology 2206A/B

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Research Methods Final Wednesday 7PMChapter 6 Qualitative and Quantitative MeasurementIntroductionMeasurement is a key issue where wetry to link conceptual definitions toempirical realityImplications for how we measurethings are enormousNot necessarily an easy endeavor Ageskin color sex political attitudes racialattitudesDifferences Between Qualitative and Quantitative ApproachesQuantitativeQualitativeMeasurement issues dealt with before data Measurement issues dealt with during data collectioncollectionData is in the form of numbers that is the numbers Data is in the form of number written or spoken are an empirical representation of abstract ideaswords actions sounds symbols physical objects visual images Concept development occurs before data collectionConcept developing occurs mainly during data collection ConceptualizationOperationalizationConceptualization the process of giving conceptual or theoretical definitions for abstract ideasconcepts Main point is to become clear and state exactly what you mean to othersConceptual definition definition in abstract theoretical terms Written to clarify ones thinkingConceptual hypothesis a type of hypothesis in which the researcher expressed variables in abstract conceptual terms and expresses the relationships among variables in a theoretical way causal relationship between tow constructsquantitativeEmpirical hypothesis a type of hypothesis in which the researcher expresses variables in specific terms and expressed the association among the measured indicators of observable empirical evidence quantitative Operationalization the process of specifying the operations involved inmeasuring a conceptin other wordstranslating theory eg concept ageinto reality administer a survey whichasks how old are youOperational definition the definition of a variable in terms of the specific activities to measure or indicate it with empirical evidence Quantitative Approaches to ReliabilityRefers to the dependability or consistency of a measure Mechanisms to improve itoClearly conceptualize constructs measure one clearly defined concept at a timeoUse more precise measures to avoid picking up noiseoMultiple indicators allow us tap into more than one dimension of the concept and correct for flaws in any single measureoPretests pilot studies replication allows to see flaws in questionsbuild on established measuresQuantitative Approaches to ValidityValidity Refers to the degree to which the conceptual and operational definition matchMeasurement validity refers to how well the conceptual and operational definitions mesh with each otherDistinguish Three Types of ValidityoFace Validity the indicator measures what it is supposed to measure as judged by expertsoContent Validity does the indicators tap into all aspects of the concept we have definedoCriterion Validity compare indicators to a standard or criterion indicatorassess matchoConcurrent Validity indicator is associated with preexisting oneoPredictive Validity indicator predicts future events Qualitative Approaches to ReliabilityRefers to dependability or consistencyBUT in a much less rigid manner The inductive nature of this researchimplies that data will influencemeasuresSocial life is dynamic and changingwhich means our measures should notbe staticMultiple sources and researchers withdiffering approaches will and shouldyield differing measures if society istruly diverse and dynamicso celebratedifferenceQualitative Approaches to ValidityFocus on authenticity that is providingan account of social life that seeks to beas fair honest and true to the experienceof those being studied and portrayed inresearchLinking abstract concepts to empiricalreality less of a concern Validity can be judged by the ability ofthe researcher to convey or capture theinsiders view Understanding the Relationship Between Reliability and ValidityReliability is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for validityoLow reliability and low validityoHigh reliability and low validityoHigh reliability and high validityIDEALInternal validity means there is no errors internal to the design of the research projectsExternal validity the ability to generalize from experimental research to settings or people that differ from the conditions studied Statistical validity mean that the correct statistical procedure is chosen and its assumptions are fully metLevels of Measurement
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