Sociology 2247A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Fear Factory, Restorative Justice, World Forum For Harmonization Of Vehicle Regulations

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2247A/B
Page:
of 3
2267 Dec 4
Video- The Fear Factory
- prison populations have doubled
- 94,000 children entering youth justice systm for the 1st time (England)
- prison success rate of 30%
- public are not very punitive
- despite stats, people don’t believe crime is down
- video touches upon everything
- moral panic & media
- punitive vs. restorative justice
-
Key Challenges in the Youth Justice
Intro
- many positive developments in youth justice
- also a lot of challenges that are still ahead in the attempts to determine the most
appropriate means of intervening in the lives of troubled youth
The Legal Regulation of Childhood and Adolescence
- the law that regulates criminal conduct for children and youth is based on a binary
system, where the state focuses on the protection of children until such time as they
cross the threshold, known as the age of majority, to adulthood
o problem with binary system, which focuses on immature children and
competent adults, is that there is no way to include evolving capacities of
children as they mature in adolescence
- youth justice: separate and distinct criminal justice system that explicitly meets
unique needs of young people
- best interest of the child doctrine appears to be in direct opposition to increasingly
trend toward adulteration of youth crime throughout the world
- Best interests of the child doctrine: when the interests of a young person are
paramount in decision-making regarding his/ her experience in the criminal justice
system
- Adulteration: dismantling of distinct system of criminal justice for youth and
remerging with systems of justice for adults
- Increased criminal justice processing of youth runs counter to reduction of youth
crime
Codification of a Separate System of Youth Justice in Canada
- international treaties and conventions bearing the legal rights of children and youth
that Canada has agreed to:
- The UN Standard Minimum Rues for the Administration of Youth Justice, known ad
the Beijing Rules (1985)
o Includes recognition of special needs of young people, that custody should
be last resort, and that proceedings should be anonymous to protect child
from lifelong stigma or labeling
- UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
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- With the enactment of the YCJA, Canada now has an explicit domestic law which
states that there should be separate justice systems for youth and adults
- Canada finally meeting international obligations to all children who have
committed offences
Diverting Children from a Life of Crime: Sustaining the Original Purpose of a
separate System of Youth Justice
- shifts in thinking and debate over the purpose of the youth justice system in Canada
are reflected in:
o The ‘Child Saving’ Movement
o The ‘best interests’ doctrine
o The ‘care’ vs. ‘control’ argument
o Rehabilitation
o Custodial sanctions
o Diversion
- Today, the YCJA is vulnerable to threats that can undermine the success it has
achieved to date; in particular the potential negative effects of Bill C-10 (Safe
Streets and Communities Act)
- Bill toughens penalties for youth, making it more likely to increase number of youth
in custody
Challenges faced by Youth with Highly Complex Needs
- substance abuse
- family
- school
- community
- understanding correlation btwn mental health disorders and youth crime - target
the disorder through treatment may reduce likelihood of recidivism
What does not work?
- must look at a range of risk and protective factors, broadly grouped as individual
factors, family factors, school factors, and community factors
- evidence based programming
- always take into consideration social context
What does work?
- effective programs have the following characteristics:
o they target dynamic factors
o they provide sufficient time
o they are appropriate to age and stage of development they are delivered by
well trained professionals
o they are individualized an delivered to those most at risk
- principles to guide effective treatment for juvenile offenders:
o closer to home principle
o rehabilitation principles
2267 Dec 4
o evidence based principle: principles based on a foundation of reliable
research
o risk-focused, strength-based principle
Principles for Developing Youth Policy
- even though young people have a unique perspective, they are rarely asked for
their opinions
- in order to make appropriate recommendations with respect to youth policy, we
need youth engagement (getting youth involved)
- to achieve youth involvement, we need to adopt a positive youth development
framework based on: factors in personal, psychological, educational, family, social,
and community aspects of young peoples lives
Summary
- there is no one ideal way t o approach youth at risk
- youth justice legislation and youth at risk programming cant be developed as one
size fits all model because the needs of so many youth are not met
- there are many unique challenged to developing effective policies for youth
Exam Details
- Monday, December 10th
- 2pm
- WSC 55
- 3 hours
- 50%
- MC, T/F (45-50)
- Fill in the blanks (20-25)
- Short Answer (2)
- Long Answer (1)
-

Document Summary

94,000 children entering youth justice systm for the 1st time (england) Despite stats, people don"t believe crime is down. Also a lot of challenges that are still ahead in the attempts to determine the most appropriate means of intervening in the lives of troubled youth. Youth justice: separate and distinct criminal justice system that explicitly meets unique needs of young people. Best interest of the child doctrine appears to be in direct opposition to increasingly trend toward adulteration of youth crime throughout the world. Best interests of the child doctrine: when the interests of a young person are paramount in decision-making regarding his/ her experience in the criminal justice system. Adulteration: dismantling of distinct system of criminal justice for youth and remerging with systems of justice for adults. Increased criminal justice processing of youth runs counter to reduction of youth crime.