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Week 7-12; Final LEcture Notes.docx

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Sociology 2253A/B
Jennifer Silcox

Week 7 Forensics Beginnings of Forensic ScienceAlphonse Bertillon 18531914 known for the development of mug shots and crime scene photographyBertillonage used photography and anthropometry Debunked 1 Endogeneity 2 ReplacedStereotypes of forensic science television shows have sparked interest in this fieldBertillon controversial aspects of research French mathematician who developed betillonage o Identification system based on measurements of the human bodyEx length of left foot and width of headPrinciples behind this was that with enough variables very few people should have the same measurements o What are the chances of having someone being 59 size 12 shoes etc o Fingerprints and mug shot rose out of o Anthropometry means measuring of the mano Racist application of this science o Reinforced racial stereotypes Debunked because of two reasonsEndogeneity factors depend on each other for that outcome Example effect of campaign spending on the chances of electoral success Replaced some aspects not used anymoreEdmond Locard 18771966 a pupil of Bertillon the director of the first crime laboratory in France Sherlock Holmes of FranceLocards exchange principle Student of Bertillon Developed exchange theoryBecame Sherlock Holmes of FranceBelieved that offender would leave something and take something o Every contact leaves some sort of trace Role of Forensic LaboratoriesBrief history of forensic laboratories Beginning of 20th Century and into the early 1920s crime scene materials given to nonCJS outside sources for analysis1932 Dr E R Frankish to organize a laboratory in Toronto1931 Commissioner JH McBrien sought to establish a RCMP force laboratoryLucas S May President of the Northwest Association of Sheriffs and Police responded regarding what a good laboratory would consist of Did not have a unified place to send evidence to Wasnt until 1932 that Ontario enlisted Dr Frankish to organize a laboratory in Ontario where they did autopsies examines of hair semen plant materials etc o Later expanded to do stuff like urine test samples o A lot of these people worked for Locard o Need for these laboratories were not a big deal before 1931 since crimes were more establishedIn 1931 this changedo Lucas May gave a generalized view of what you need in a laboratory You need to have weapons to know what does what police with background in the fields and science based individualsRegular employees would not be suitable to carry out this sort of researchSo many things will occur to the person who is trained on the investigated lines that one who is notNeed for specialized detectivesBrief history of forensic laboratories 1937 laboratory in Regina opens1942 laboratory in Ottawa opens Rockcliffe Crime Detection LaboratoryLate 1950s1960s changes in budgeting and growing sophisticationhttpwwwcbccaplayerEmbeddedOnlyNewsNSID2238281950 With budget constraints that when you needed to see why they needed the costsNeeded to justify costs for everythingAdministrative duties vs costs Forensic Science and Identification Services FSIS with the RCMP provide programs and services to clients in Canada and internationally through FS servicesCrime sceneRepositoriesData banksObjectives of Laboratories 1 Production of Evidence 2 Education 3 ResearchhttpwwwcbccaplayerNewsID2396407360 Forensic sciences servicesSometimes although we think of forensics science as police crimes they also actually appear in civil proceedings and coroners request to give opinions Objectives o To provide admissible evidence to helpInterpret evidence aid attorneys coroners etcAlso so educate those using forensic sciencesProvide research for better methods with regards to forensic sciences Beginnings of Forensic PsychologyHugo Mnsterberg 18631916 study of eyewitness testimony the psychology of false confessionsOn the Witness Stand 1908Published books on the witness standsPublished about factors that can change trials outcomes o Rational and scientific needs for probing information from witnesses which can help in arriving at false testimonyo What impacts juries to come to their conclusion and their impacts o Controversial eye witness testimony is not reliable o The illusion of what we have in our mind can be a lot different then reality o Our own memories can be unreliable and inaccurate o Because of the fact memory is not reliable or inaccurate we have to be careful as accepting forensics evident and forensic psychology as facts o Talked about different ways police interrogate different subjects to arrive to different confessions or testimonies
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