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22 Apr 2014
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Textbook Key Terms
Chapter Seven The Prosecution of Criminal Cases
Plea Bargaining: an agreement whereby an accused pleads guilty in exchange for the promise of
a benefit
Chapter Eight Sentencing
Absolute discharge: a sentence wherein the accused is found guilty but does not gain a criminal
record and is given no sentence
Fine option program: a program that provides offenders who cannot pay a fine with the
opportunity to discharge, through community service work, all or part of the fine
Suspended sentence: a sentencing option whereby the judge convicts the accused but technically
gives no sentence and instead places the offender on probation, which, if successfully completed,
results in no sentence being given
Conditional sentence of imprisonment: a sentence for offenders who receive a sentence or
sentences totaling less than two years whereby the offender serves his or her time in the
community under the supervision of a probation officer
Concurrent sentences: sentences that are combined and served simultaneously
Consecutive sentences: sentences that run separately and are completed one after the other
Judicial determination: order that a federal inmate serve half of the sentence before becoming
eligible for parole
Pre-sentence report (PSR): a document, prepared by a probation officer for the sentencing
judge, that contains sociobiographical and offence-related information about the convicted
offender and may include a recommendation for a specific sentence
Victim impact statement (VIS): submission to a sentencing court explaining the emotional,
physical and financial impact of the crime
Victim-offender meditation (VOM): a restorative justice approach in which the victim and the
offender, with the assistance of a mediator, work to resolve the conflict and consequences of the
offence
Circle sentencing: a restorative justice strategy that involves collaboration and consensual
decision making by community residents, the victim, the offender, and justice system personnel
to resolve conflicts and sanction offenders
Chapter Ten Correctional Institutions
Two-year rule: the basis for the provincial/federal split in correctional jurisdiction (two years
less a day = provincial, two years plus a day = federal)
Total institutions: settings in which the activities and regimens of inmates/residents are highly
controlled
Citizen advisory committees (CACs): organizations that operate in all federal correctional
institutions, composed of volunteers who provide input into federal correctional policies and
programs and liaise with the community
Status degradation ceremonies: the processing of offenders into correctional institutions
Pains of imprisonment: the deprivations experienced by inmates confined in correctional
institutions
Inmate code: a set of behavioural rules that govern interaction among inmates and between
inmates and institutional staff
Prisonization: the process by which new inmates are socialized into the norms, values, and
culture of the prison
Classification: the process by which inmates are categorized through the use of various
assessment instruments
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