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Corrections Chapter Summaries.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2256A/B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Corrections Chapter Summaries: Chapter 5: Alternatives to Confinement • When used as an alternative to confinement, community corrections includes diversion and probation as well as a variety of intermediate sanctions and restorative justice initiatives • Bill C-10 has constricted the use of alternative measures and imposed mandatory minimum sentences for offenders convicted of violent and sexual offences Diversion: Programs designed to keep offenders from being processed further into the formal criminal justice system There are programs at the pre-charge, post-charge- and post-sentencing stages Reduces costs and social stigmatization and helps offenders address specific factors that led to their offending Traditional diversion programs focus on low-risk, first-time offenders: in recent years, however, cases involving more serious offences have been referred to diversion programs Victim-Offender Mediation (VOM) & Victim-Offender Reconciliation (VOR) programs take a restorative approach in which the victim and the offender are provided with the opportunity to express their feeling and concerns Net-Widening: A potential, unanticipated consequence of diversion programs in which persons who would otherwise have been released outright by the police or not charges by Crown Counsel are involved in the justice system Probation: A sentence imposed on an offender by a criminal court judge that provides for the supervision of the offender in the community by a probation officer, either as an alternative to custody or in conjunction with a period of incarceration Number of ways that adult offenders can be placed on probation 1. As part of a conditional discharge 2. As a condition of a suspended sentence 3. As part of intermittent sentence 4. As a sentence on its own (most common) 5. Following a prison term of 2 years of less 6. In conjunction with a conditional sentence 7. As a Federal offender who have received a sentence of exactly 2 years Those receiving a conditional discharge, a suspended sentence, or an intermittent sentence must be placed on probation Those receiving a fine, incarceration, or a conditional sentence may be placed on probation Specialized, Problem-Solving Courts: Designed to divert offenders with special needs from the criminal justice system These specialized courts include community courts, drug courts, and mental health courts (MHCs)  3 Defining attributes of problem-solving courts are these 1. They address the underlying problems of offenders, victims, and communities 2. They involve collaboration among various agencies and disciplines 3. They are accountable to the community Problem-solving courts abandon adversarial/legalistic approaches in favour of one that centres on treatment and rehabilitation Therapeutic Justice: The use of the law and the authority of the court has change agents in promoting the health and well-being offenders Diversion of Mentally Ill Persons: The importance of addressing the needs of this population become more urgent with the closing of mental hospitals as part of the philosophy of deinstitutionalization that became popular in the 1970s One concern is that, in the absence of community-based resources, mentally ill person will be criminalized • The courts appear to be most effective at reducing re-offending when the principles of risks, needs, and responsively (RNR)—are followed—that is, when offenders are selected who are most suited for the program in terms of their level of risk, their needs, and their motivation and ability to complete the requirements imposed by the courts Intermediate Sanctions: A wide range of correctional programs that generally fall between probation and incarceration, although specific initiatives may include either of these penalties as well Often referred to as alternative sanctions or community sanctions  Sanctions include fines, community service, day attendance centres, home detention with or without EM, intensive probation supervision, strict discipline camps (boot camps), conditional sentence orders (CSOs), and halfway houses Offender-Oriented Objectives—include the assurance of real punishment, retribution, and some degree of incapacitation and control of offenders System-Oriented Objectives—reducing institutional populations and the costs of corrections, as well as rates of recidivism Primary objectives of intermediate sanctions is to hold offenders responsible for their behaviour through restrictive and intensive intervention Electronic Monitoring: A correctional strategy that involves using electronic equipment to ensure that the conditions of supervision are fulfilled EM is used in support of an alternative to confinement, its main objective is to ensure public safety while allowing the offender to remain in the community—only offenders who have been convicted of less serious, non-violent offences and who have a stable residence and a telephone are eligible to participate Active EM systems—offender wears a transmitter that provides a continuous signal as to her or her location Passive Systems—Utilize a computer to call the offender at either random or specified times in order to verify that the offender is where he or she is supposed to be Conditional Sentence: A sentence imposed on an offender who would otherwise be incarcerated for a period of less than 2 years but whose risk is determined to be manageable in the community Probation and Conditional Sentence: The Main Difference Probation focuses on rehabilitation, whereas conditional sentence embraces the principles of rehabilitation and punitive justice—conditions attached to a conditional sentence are generally more onerous and more restrictive than the conditions attached to a probation order Chapter 6: Probation Practise • Probation practises = due process, crime control, treatment, and restorative justice Activities of Probation Officers = Officer of the Court, Investigation, Assessment, Counselling, Service Coordination, Surveillance/Enforcement Motivational Interviewing (MI): An interview technique used by probation officers designed to empower offenders to change their attitudes and behaviour Continuity of Supervision: The requirement that, to be effective, offenders be supervised by the same probation officer during their term of probation Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP): An intermediate sanction (between the minimal supervision of traditional probation and incarceration) that generally includes reduced caseloads for probation officers, increased surveillance, treatment interventions, and efforts to ensure that probationers are employed Pains of Probation: The emotional economic challenges that probationers may experience while under probation supervision in the community Chapter 8: The Experience of Correctional Officers • Cos have 4 main texts 1. Security 2. Service, looking after inmates needs 3. Helping inmates adjust to life inside 4. Helping inmates prepare to re-enter the community • In Federal Institutions, CO1 officers are responsible for dynamic and static security, establishing working relationships with inmates and other staff, and supporting case management (priority is security) • CO2 Officers focus on case management and on facilitating and encouraging inmate participation in programs • In Provincial/Territorial institutions the role of COs is multifaceted • COs do not have power to discipline inmates, but in enforcing the institutions policies and regulations, they are able to initiate the punishment process • Successful Applicants are required to complete the Correctional Training Program, which has 4 phases 1. 4-8 week online learning modules 2. 2-4 weeks of workbook assignments 3. 8 week training at the Regional Staff College 4. On the Job training • Normative Code of Behaviour: Behavioural rules that guide interaction and contribute to solidarity among correctional officers • Generally inmates serving life sentences (25-year min) are the easiest group to deal with • Instability and lack of routine in correctional institutions may be in part a result of the erosion of the inmate code • Custodial Agenda: Activities of correctional officers that centre on control and enforcement of regulations • Correctional Agenda: Activities of correctional officers as change agents using their authority to help inmates cope with the problems of living in confinement • Officers are well aware that full enforcement of all institutional regulations at all times would make life unbearable both for themselves and for the inmates • Coercive Power—rule enforcement, disciplinary charges, and searches • Reward Power—Awarding certain inmates privileges, providing favourable reports • Legitimate Power—Officers formal authority • Exchange Power—The informal system of rewards, under enforcement of regulations • Expert/Professional Power—use of expertise to resolve conflicts • Use of Force Management Model: Framework that guides the use of force by correctional officers—officers are permitted to use only the level of force required to carry out their duties • CEDs (Conducted Energy Devices) more commonly known as Tasers—are considered an intermediate weapon in the Use of Force Model, in the same category as pepper spray and physical restraints • Corrupt COs have sometimes joined forces with organized criminal groups such as Hells Angels • A provincial CO in BC was sentenced to 3 years in prison for helping an inmate escape —soon after another CO was sentenced to 4 year for trafficking drugs and another CO was fired for having sexual relations with an inmate • Research on COs orientation and attitudes has revealed that a key source of stress and alienation is the relationship between COs and the prison administration • COs in BC 90% have been exposed to blood, feces, spit and urine 75% and inmate threats to their personal safety 66%, also 20% of them had witnessed the death of an inmate • Major causes of this stress is due to overcrowding and understaffing • COs are not told which inmates have HIV/AIDS • COS may feel that senior manager, the median and the general public neither understand nor respect their profession • A related source of frustration for COs is the absence of communication with and support from management, which too often develops policies without consulting front line workers • COs generally work rotating shifts, for federal officers the most common schedule is 12 hour shifts on a 2 day, 2 night, 5 days off rotation • Critical Incident Stress Debriefing—Procedure for assisting COs following a critical incident this technique involves on-scene debriefing of the CO by a trained intervenor after a critical incident has occurred the objectives of CISD is to protect and support the CO, while imparting information and strategies that will help the officer cope with any symptoms of critical incident stress that might later arise Most officers have developed effective coping mechanisms and are generally satisfied with their work—strategies for coping with stress include reducing on-the-job involvement and not talking about work after hours • Female workers have been called 100-weaklings—have had threatening notes left on the windshields of their cars, and have been harassed and embarrassed by male coworkers in the presence of inmates • Union of Canadian Correctional Officers (UCCO)—advocates on behalf of federal COs—Among the issues the UCCO has addressed are inmate attacks on COs with bodily fluids and the impact of Bill C-10 Chapter 9: Experience of Inmates • First time offenders may experience severe culture shock, whereas offenders with long criminal histories and previous confinements are likely to be relatively unaffected Status Degradation Ceremonies: Processing of offenders into correctional institutions whereby the offender is psychologically and materially stripped of possessions that identify him or her as a member of the “free society” Pains of Imprisonment: The deprivations experienced by inmates confined in correctional institutions, including the loss of autonomy, privacy, security, and freedom of movement and association • Society of Captives—Gresgham Sykes—deprivations that inmates experience— include loss of liberty, loss of access to goods and services, and loss of access to heterosexual relationships, as well as the loss of personal autonomy and personal security • Loss of Liberty is perhaps the most devastating for most offenders Deprivation Theory: An explanation which holds that the inmate social system develops as a consequence of inmates attempts to mitigate the pains of imprisonment Importation Theory: An explanation which holds that the inmate social system develops as a consequence of pre-prison attitudes and behaviours that are brought by inmates into the institution Prisonization: The process by which inmates become socialized into the norms, values and culture of the prison Institutionalized: Inmates who have become prisonized to such a degree that they are unable to function in the outside, free community State-Raised Offenders: Inmates who have spent most their youth and adult lives confined in correctional institutions Inmate Code: A set of behavioural rules that govern interactions among inmates and with institutional staff Square Johns—Exhibit pro-social behaviour and a positive attitude toward staff and the admin Right Guys—Exhibit anti-social behaviour to authority Snitches—Play a risky game of providing correctional staff with information about other inmates and their activities • A bit is an inmate’s sentence, a beef is the crime committed; a fish is a new inmates and a goof is an inmate who behaves inappropriately in the institution • Homebrew—a concoction made by inmates with ingredients stolen from the kitchen of dining hall—most illicit drugs in prison have the effect of downing out inmates by contrast homebrew consumption can precipitate violence Mature Coping—A positive approach taken by inmates to adjust to life inside correctional institutions Avoid using violence and deception in addressing problems, are altruistic in their relationships with other inmates and their time in confinement for positive growth through participation in treatment programs Obstacles to Mature Coping= The prison regimen may not encourage independent judgement, other inmates may seek to disrupt the prison environment, and inmates who try to maturely may find themselves victimized by others Most frequent cause of inmate death are natural ones followed by drug and alcohol abuse, accident, and suicide—the prison suicide rate is more than twice that of the general Canadian population—Suicide rates are higher for women who are in segregation Chapter 11: Release from Incarceration • The practise of releasing offenders before the end of their sentence—today is called conditional release • Section 102 of the CCRA states “The board or a principal parole board may grant parole to an offender if, in its opinion The offender will not, be reoffending, present an undue risk to society before the expiration according to law of the sentence the offender is serving, and The release of the offender will contribute to the protection of society by facilitating the reintegration of the offender into society as a law-abiding citizen Cold Turkey Release: The discharge of an offender at the end of their sentence when no conditional release or supervision is possible, such as when an offender has served his or her entire sentence in custody or provincial/territorial offenders are released at the two-thirds point in their sentence • The release of an offender from custody can occur at one of three points in the sentence (1) The parole eligibility date, for either day parole or full parole (2) The “statutory release” date which is usually at the 2/3s point in a sentence (3) Warrant Expiry Date—marks the end of the sentence Judicial Recognizance: An order of the court, often referred to as a peace bond, that requires the offender (most often sex offenders) to adhere to set conditions beyond the expiry of their sentence, including most often avoiding places where there are children Temporary Absence: A type of conditional release that allows an inmate to participate in community activities, including employment and education, while residing in a minimum security facility or halfway house Day Parole: The authority granted by a parole board that provides an opportunity for inmates to be at large in order to prepare for full release (job search) while returning at night to an institution or, more typically, to a community residential facility Full Parole: The authority granted by a parole board for an inmate to be at large under supervision in the community for the remainder of his or her sentence Statutory Release: A provision that allows incarcerated federal offenders to be released at the two-thirds point in their sentence (unless the CSC makes the decision to recommend to the PBC that the offender be detained) and to serve the remaining one-third of their sentence under supervision in the community Remission/Discharge: Available to provincial/territorial inmates who have served two-thirds of
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