Sociology 2260A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Osama Bin Laden, English Law, Welfare Fraud

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2260A/B
Class 7/8:
Durkheim
Articles:
a. Face veils banned for Canadian citizen ship oaths
b. Schools in France can’t wear religious items (veils, Jewish hats, big crosses) Laicaite
c. Torture techniques is there a law against them
R V. Brown
- 3 young black men held 20 people at gunpoint
- Severely wounded a white female and escaped by car
- Media reports suggested a ‘social crisis’ that provoked reactions
- Public reactions to crime can bring a community closer together and reinforce social norms
Social Solidarity: collective life determines individual conduct
Law is a visible symbol to measure
Collective Conscience: shared moral values
Individual Consciousness: people ‘associate together’ and ‘apply a mutual effect upon one
another
Science of Sociology: the moral frameworks that arise from and shape various kinds of social
interaction
Empirically analyzing social facts
Actions may be strengthened into a collective force greater than the individual (national
anthem)
12) Social facts Ways of acting, thinking and feeling, external to the individual, and endowed
with the power of coercion, by reason of which they control him
Guides and controls of conduct
Norms, mores, folkways, laws, crime, etc
**Societies should be studied through social facts**
Laws are social facts because they exert power over individuals' beliefs, forms of
consciousness, behavior and cannot be modified by individuals' actions or changes in their
beliefs, consciousness, and attitudes.
Moral individualism
- The value system Durkheim argues must be the foundation of all law in modern complex
Western societies
- Torture is incompatible with moral individualism
- Universal respect for the equal human dignity and autonomy of every member of society
- Most important moral principle is expressed in law
Contradiction Increased individualism and collective value system within the division of labor
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14 &15) Mechanical Solidarity
- Homogeneous societies where people engage in similar tasks
- Religion and law work together
- Early, traditional societies
- Types of law: Repressive law (penal, criminal)
Strong collective conscious
Individual is punished
Used to protect / reaffirm collective conscience
Organic Solidarity
- Brought on by division of labor
- Specialized roles and more dissimilar experiences
- Advanced, modern societies
- Type of law: Restitutive law (civil, admin, procedural)
Restore status quo or normal state using administrative agents
Social Justice
- Improve the structural inequities that generate the problems by the forced division of labor
- Nelson Mandela
- Apartheid: social and political policy of racial segregation and discrimination enforced by
white minority governments in South Africa from 1948 to 1994
17) Anomie: condition of relative normlessness in a whole society or in one of its component
groups
Breakdown of social regulations
Modernization/industrialization
Social mobility
____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Class 10:
Weber’s Definition of Law An order will be called law if it is externally guaranteed by the
probability that coercion, to bring about conformity or avenge violation, will be applied by a staff
of people holding themselves specially ready for that purpose”
Value-free
Historically situated social action
Verstehen: interpretive methods sociology uses to explain social behaviors
Social Action: behaviors and meanings that take account of others
Ideal-types (pure types): enable precise, conceptual and value-free analyses of social action;
heuristic (experience based) creations; formed from characteristics and elements of the
given phenomena, but it is not meant to correspond to all of the characteristics of any one
particular case; abstract idea
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Document Summary

Articles: face veils banned for canadian citizen ship oaths, schools in france can"t wear religious items (veils, jewish hats, big crosses) laicaite, torture techniques is there a law against them. 3 young black men held 20 people at gunpoint. Severely wounded a white female and escaped by car. Media reports suggested a social crisis" that provoked reactions. Public reactions to crime can bring a community closer together and reinforce social norms. Law is a visible symbol to measure. Individual consciousness: people associate together" and apply a mutual effect upon one another. Science of sociology: the moral frameworks that arise from and shape various kinds of social interaction. **societies should be studied through social facts** Laws are social facts because they exert power over individuals" beliefs, forms of consciousness, behavior and cannot be modified by individuals" actions or changes in their beliefs, consciousness, and attitudes. The value system durkheim argues must be the foundation of all law in modern complex.

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