[Sociology 2266A/B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 31 pages long Study Guide!

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Published on 5 Oct 2016
Department
Western
Sociology 2266A/B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Criminology 2266 September 13/ 2016
Crime: engaging in act that we defined as illegal, and codified : repercussions for the act
- Act with subsequent punishment
- Exists on a continuum
oEx: murder (worst)… petty theft (other end of crime)
More: universal norm… breaking a more would be a more severe crime
Folkways: norms specific to a culture/community. We can define a crime, but not every country would
define the same crime as crime
Ex: prostitution, marijuana use
Criminology:
- Study of crime
oMaking laws
Who?
Where did it come from?
oBreaking laws
Who broke it?
Why?
Social class?
oReacting to breaking laws
- Objective of criminology: development of body of general and verified principles regarding
these processes
- Usually, there is no difference in social class, race in crime across the board
oDiff in sex and age
- If we take all crimes into consideration, stereotypes disintegrate
Reacting: criminal justice system : How do we react? Process? How does society react?
Social class/ race matter when reacting to crime
- We treat people more harshly: visible minority and lower class even if crime is the same
We use scientific methods in crime
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- Objective research methods
- Use content analysis, surveys, historical analysis, experimental designs etc
Crim vs other disciplines
- Interdisciplinary (more than one academic field)
oPsych, law, sociology etc
Crim vs criminal justice
- Crim: origin, extent of crime, reaction
Criminal justice:
- Agency of social control and how they react
- Correction
- Law enforcement
- Process of criminal justice
Crim vs deviance
- Deviance: falls out of social norm
- Not all deviant acts aren’t criminal
Not all crime and criminal behaviour is deviant
Not all crimes harm society
Crim in 6 areas
- Definition of crime and criminals : who is criminal? What?
- Origins of roles of laws: where did it come from? Who made it?
- Social distribution of crime: where does it come from? Who made it?
- Social distribution of crime: characteristic of criminals, trends, patterns
- Causation of crime: why do people commit and others not?
- Patterns of criminal behaviour: some grow out if, others are career criminals
- Societal reaction to crime: how labelling process affects people
oRole of stigma
Sub areas
- Criminal stats: gathering crime data, devise new research methods
- Sociology of law: origin of law, measuring forces that change/create law
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Document Summary

Crime: engaging in act that we defined as illegal, and codified : repercussions for the act. Exists on a continuum: ex: murder (worst) petty theft (other end of crime) More: universal norm breaking a more would be a more severe crime. We can define a crime, but not every country would define the same crime as crime. Where did it come from: breaking laws. Objective of criminology: development of body of general and verified principles regarding these processes. Usually, there is no difference in social class, race in crime across the board: diff in sex and age. If we take all crimes into consideration, stereotypes disintegrate. Social class/ race matter when reacting to crime. We treat people more harshly: visible minority and lower class even if crime is the same. Use content analysis, surveys, historical analysis, experimental designs etc. Agency of social control and how they react. Not all crime and criminal behaviour is deviant.

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