Sociology 2266A/B Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Gender Role, White-Collar Crime

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Published on 1 Dec 2016
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2266A/B
Western
Sociology 2266A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Crime, Criminals and Criminology (Chapter 1); 2266A
A Violent Crime: The Sand Brothers
The Sand brothers were both trouble makers going up, they both went to jail and
finished their sentences. Once out, Robert (older) reunited with his girlfriend. Robert,
his girl-friend, and Danny (brother) then took off to start a new life, this which, violated
their parole. This began a chase of the brothers vs. the cops. Eventually, they were
caught and Danny was fatally injured.
From a criminologist perspective, they would explain this situation in a number of ways
Some would focus on biology (inherited traits), others would focus on the psychological
make up (psychopaths or other mental disabilities)
A White-Collar Crime: The Downfall of Conrad Black
Corad Black, as oce head of Caada’s largest espaper copay, he spet ore
than three years in a US jail for fraud and obstruction of justice
What is Criminology?
The term criminology is defined as the study of crime
o Involves the process of breaking laws, making laws, and reacting to the breaking
of laws
The Discipline of Criminology
Includes six major areas
o Definition of crime and criminals
Not all social harms are criminal, not all crimes are harmful
We must specify which acts are defined as crimes
o The origin and role of law
Social origins of law as well as role it plays in society
Why are some acts defined as crimes
o Social distribution of crime
Characteristics of people who commit crimes
Trends in occurrence of crime over time
Differences among cities, etc.
o The causation of crime
Why some people commit crimes
o Patterns of criminal behavior
Who are offenders? Who are victims?
Patterns amongst certain crimes
o Societal reactions to crime
Rules and Laws: The Regulation of Behavior
Norms: established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
o Differs between cultures/countries
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What is a Crime?
Legal definition: A crime in an act that violates the criminal law and is punishable with a
jail term, a fine, and/or some other sanction
White collar crime: Crime that is committed by middle and upper class people in the
course of their legitimate business activities
Human Rights Violations as Crime
Human Rights: Minimum conditions required for a person to live a dignified life. Among
the rights set out by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are the right to life,
liberty, and security of the person; the right to be free of torture and other forms of
cruel and degrading punishment; the right to equality before the law; and the right to
basic necessities of life
A Continuum of Crime and Deviance
Hagan proposed that deviance and crime be considered as an continuum ranging from
the least serious to most serious acts
The seriousness can be assessed on three dimensions
o The degree of consensus than an act is wrong
o The seerity of the society’s respose to the act
o The assessment of the degree of harm of the act
Hagans approach consisted of
o Consensus crimes (top)
o Conflict crimes (2nd)
o Social deviations (3rd)
o Social Diversions (bottom)
Crime is Socially Defined
Society defines how severe an act is and if it should be looked upon as a crime
The Relativity of Crime
Who Makes the Rules? Conflict vs. Consensus Theories of Law
Consensus Approach
Consensus theorist believe that law represents the consensus of the people
o The law reflects values shared by most members of a society
The consensus approach also is supported by the fact that there is a broad agreement
regarding many laws, particularly those dealing with street crimes such as burglary,
robbery and murder
The Conflict Approach
Conflict theorists do not believe that laws reflect a consensus of members of society
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Document Summary

The sand brothers were both trouble makers going up, they both went to jail and finished their sentences. Once out, robert (older) reunited with his girlfriend. Robert, his girl-friend, and danny (brother) then took off to start a new life, this which, violated their parole. This began a chase of the brothers vs. the cops. Eventually, they were caught and danny was fatally injured. From a criminologist perspective, they would explain this situation in a number of ways. Some would focus on biology (inherited traits), others would focus on the psychological make up (psychopaths or other mental disabilities) A white-collar crime: the downfall of conrad black. Co(cid:374)rad black, (cid:449)as o(cid:374)ce head of ca(cid:374)ada"s largest (cid:374)e(cid:449)spaper co(cid:373)pa(cid:374)y, he spe(cid:374)t (cid:373)ore than three years in a us jail for fraud and obstruction of justice. The term criminology is defined as the study of crime. Involves the process of breaking laws, making laws, and reacting to the breaking of laws.

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