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Criminology Theories Page.docx

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Sociology 2266A/B

Criminology Theories Page: Theory of Dangerous classes: - The theory or assumption that crime is equated with the lower classes or street criminals -These are assumed to be the poor, military surplus and bandits - We saw the rise of these “dangerous classes” with the development of private property. Social Contract theory: - John locke and the Classical school of criminology - Used in centuries before to separate law from religion - Unwritten voluntary contract between the state and the citizen giving power to those in government and mutual right and duties Social interactionism: - Crimes happen in relation to society structure Routine activity Theory: - Developed by Cohen and Felson - Three factors that influence criminal behavior, motivated offender, suitable targets and absence of security - Attention heavily on environment and surveillance, not on class structure - Classical approach to crime Rational choice Theory: - Developed by Cornish and Clarke - Rational choice of free will to commit a crime - High risk lifestyles are key to this model - This is demonstrated through todays risk assessment program - People making rational choices about committing crimes Control Theory: - Hirschi - We all have criminal propensity and claims socialization and social learning is what prevents this criminality from creeping out - said there were 9 bonds which kept you connected and socialized in society, for example friends, school, employment ect. Consensus Theory: - Developed by Emile Durkheim - Society is in agreement with and about all laws and its only in the fringe that we see crime or deviance from the assumed norm Strain Theory: - Used to be called anomie - When there is strain between cultural goals and available institutional means - Possibilities to attain goals are limited by class, education, opportunities, gender and race - Helps to explain the dangerous classes and why violent crime is more apparent in the lower class structures Organizational view: States and organizations find themselves in a squeeze where they cant accomplish goals and therefore pursue a financial gain by using illegals means on an organizations level Marxist Theory: - Maintenance of the market economy and power of the state, corporations commits crimes for this purpose - Corporations shield individual’s liability - Street crimes deflect attention from state / white collar offences Critique: - This theory is good because it bridges between the micro and macro, so between marginalized groups and society - Explain the relationship between inequality and crime - A negative is that this theory doesn’t really explore the element of gender - Gender questions like why do women have lower crime rates then men - This is a rather deterministic view; it states that if you experience strain you WILL fall into criminal tendencies… This isn’t always the case Learning Theory: - Developed by Sutherland - Habits and knowledge from experience and socialization - You learn things by mimicking people and then taking this information and applying it to your own life. Critique: - Theory is good because it looks at interactions with individuals and explains both conformity and delinquency - Negative of this theory is that you cant really test it, you can measure how much time you spend with these individuals but cant really test much else like how effected you are by their actions Cognitive Theory: - Acquire habits through association between stimuli and response - Trial and error Differential Association theory: -Developed by Edward Sutherland - This theory argues that crime and conformity are learned and influenced by those around you - Crime is created by interactions with other people, influences from peer groups. - Example… gangs, churches, hobby groups and family Organization view: - Things like price fixing are learned and instructed - Used to explain differences in crime rates Subcult
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