[Sociology 2266A/B] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 53 pages long Study Guide!

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Published on 30 Mar 2017
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2266A/B
Western
Sociology 2266A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Criminology- September 14, 2015
Terms:
Gestalt
o Functioning determined by behaviour and nature of the whole social
system
o Sees behaviour in larger context
o Opposed to atomism
o Looks at macro configurations
Process
o Mechanism of change in social relation
o Opposite of static
o Associated with dynamic
o Viewed as a complex part of events and structures
o A social process is a continuous series of actions, taking place in time, and
leading to a special kind of result
Conflict
o Opposite of consensus model
o Between persons, social units, cultures, etc
Prevalent in societies with diverse value systems and normative
groups
o 2 models of society: conflict and consensus
Consensus model: social structure is functionally integrated system
held together in equilibrium
We assume that: 1) society is a relatively persistent, stable
structure, 2) well integrated, 3) every element has a
function- helps maintain the system, and 4) a functioning
social structure is based on a consensus on values
Conflict model: societies and social organizations are shaped by
diversity, coercion and change
We assume that: 1) at every point society is subject to
change, 2) it displays at every point dissensus and conflict,
3) every element contributes to change, and 4) it is based
on the coercion of some of its members by others
o Coercion a major element
o Values are ruling
o Not always disruptive
o Differences of opinions
Power
o In society, some positions have the ability to exercise coercive control
over other sectors and positions
o Linked with conflict
o Ability of persons/groups to determine the conduct of other
persons/groups
o Stratified interests
Class (social)
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o Material position, income, job security, upward mobility;
o Prestige in society
o Relation to work wage or owner
o Example: working class
Race
o Social reactions to facial characteristics
o Hair and skin color
o Sub-category: language
Country of origin
Gender
o Not biological, but social division of the sexes
o Constructed differences
o Cultural motifs
Masculinity
Feminity
Gender roles
Patriarchy
Ideology
o Dominant explanations
o Usually associated with State or rulers
o Legal, moral, religious values
Feudal times preserve wealth
o Ideas in support of economic systems
o Tied to theory constructions too
Crime is a _________ concept *** major theme for the entire class
Defining crime
o Historic debate in field
o Debate started in white collar crime Sutherland (1945)
Injurious, but admin violations
They were fined, not prosecuted
Definition of crime was bias
o Prevailing definition was the ‘legal’ one
Not in the criminal code = not a crime
Criminologists
Thorsten Sellin- famous criminologist
o Criticized legality
o Conduct norms more if not equally important
Transcended State, time and place
o Search for universal categories (consensus)
Edwin Sutherland
o Theorist of white collar crime
o Worst crime problem was not street crime but rather it was white collar
o Preferred ‘social injury’
o Notion of legal sanctions
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Document Summary

Gestalt: functioning determined by behaviour and nature of the whole social system, sees behaviour in larger context, opposed to atomism, looks at macro configurations. Conflict: opposite of consensus model, between persons, social units, cultures, etc. Prevalent in societies with diverse value systems and normative groups: 2 models of society: conflict and consensus. Consensus model: social structure is functionally integrated system held together in equilibrium. We assume that: 1) society is a relatively persistent, stable structure, 2) well integrated, 3) every element has a function- helps maintain the system, and 4) a functioning social structure is based on a consensus on values. Conflict model: societies and social organizations are shaped by diversity, coercion and change. Power: in society, some positions have the ability to exercise coercive control over other sectors and positions, linked with conflict, ability of persons/groups to determine the conduct of other persons/groups, stratified interests.