[Sociology 2266A/B] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (83 pages long!)

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Published on 30 Mar 2017
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2266A/B
Western
Sociology 2266A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1- Crime, Criminals and Criminology
A Violent Crime: The Sand Brothers:
Trouble with crime since young age, poor
Tried to move to Manitoba (violating parole) and got involved in a violent police chase
and Danny was shot and killed, Robert and gf, Laurie Bell, caught and charged with 1st
degree murder
o Robert= convicted of manslaughter & Laurie convicted manslaughter
Diego Zepeda-Corado thought son was possessed by devil and tried to exorcise devil out
but ended up dying due to dehydration after 7 days
o 4 year in jail after pleaded guilty manslaughter
A White Collar Crime: The downfall of Conrad Black:
rich, privileged, educated- stole answers to tests and hacked into system at college
accused Black and other executives of conspiring to steal $400 million from Hollinger
International that should have been paid out to shareholders
2005 criminal fraud charges laid- illegal because corporation owned by shareholders, not
men ran company
Sold off newspapers and paid noncompete fees but instead going to Hollinger and
shareholders, went right to Black and colleagues
Misusing corporate money for personal expenses- 40,000 bday party for wife
Obstruction of justice violating boxes of documents from TO office
Partner testified against, pleaded guilty and got lenient sentence (29 months)
Served 42 months in prison
What is Criminology?
Criminologists- academics who study crime and criminal justice system
Criminology- the body of knowledge regarding crime as social phenomenon. It includes
process of making laws, breaking laws and reacting breaking laws. Its objective is
development of a body of general and verified principles and other types of knowledge
regarding this process of law, crime and treatment.
Why Should We Study Crime?
Can tell us a lot about of society ex: US has harsher punishments and more violent crimes
(guns)=highlight value differences b/w 2 countries
Understand crime before can reduce
Directly/ indirectly affect all of us- many victims, and all pay for costs of crime and
crime control system
The Discipline of Criminology:
6 major areas of discipline:
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1. Definition of crime and criminals- not all social crimes criminal, not all criminal acts
harmful= specify which acts defined as crimes. Who should be defined as criminal for
criminological research purposes?
2. Origins and role of law- understand societal origins laws as well as role law plays in
society= why some criminal/ other legislation/ nothing?
3. Social distribution of crime- characteristics who commit, trends over time, differences in
location etc
4. Causation of crime- why some people commit?
5. Patterns of criminal behaviour- analyze patterns of categorized crimes
6. Societal reactions to crime-process criminal justice system, includes police, courts and
correctional system
o Constitution Act 1867, federal parliament has exclusive jurisdiction over criminal
law and procedure (amend and pass laws)
o Provinces responsible admiration of criminal justice
o RCMP= federal, provincial in ON, QB, NF and municipal smaller comm and
o urban policing under contract larger
o Provinces appointing some judges and admin “lower” court deal w most crim
cases
o Higher-level try serious crim cases resp federal gov, as are prov appeal courts
o Top= SCC hears appeals of prov courts of appeal
o Sentences less 2 years= prov, 2+ years= federal institution CSC
o Early release made by National Parole Board- supervised CSC
Rules and Laws: The Regulation of Behaviour:
Norms- established rules of behaviour/ standards of conduct
Internalized or refrain out of fear/ break whenever get chance
Informal rules/ folkways govern behaviour- varies by society
Avert chaos and enhance sense belonging with informal penalties
Law exists order can no longer be maintained through informal rules and behaviour that
is too serious to be left to informal mechanisms
What is Crime?
Prior 18th century, offences mainly handled privately by wronged individual and family
Early courts Europe and north America= religious and civil not criminal law
The Legal Definition of Crime:
Crime is an act that violates the criminal law and is punishable with a jail term, fine and/
or some other sanction
Is White-Collar Crime Really Crime?
Edwin Sutherland argued focusing only on violations of criminal law (blue collar)
presented a misleading picture of crime that primarily lower-class phenom
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Document Summary

A white collar crime: the downfall of conrad black: rich, privileged, educated- stole answers to tests and hacked into system at college: accused black and other executives of conspiring to steal million from hollinger. What is criminology: criminologists- academics who study crime and criminal justice system, criminology- the body of knowledge regarding crime as social phenomenon. It includes process of making laws, breaking laws and reacting breaking laws. Its objective is development of a body of general and verified principles and other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime and treatment. 6 major areas of discipline: definition of crime and criminals- not all social crimes criminal, not all criminal acts harmful= specify which acts defined as crimes. Rules and laws: the regulation of behaviour: norms- established rules of behaviour/ standards of conduct. Internalized or refrain out of fear/ break whenever get chance.