Sociology 2266A/B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 48 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
Department
Western
Sociology 2266A/B
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Tuesday, January 9, 2018
! of !1 2
Lecture 1 — Intro to Criminology
What is Crime?"
-Crime: an act punishable by law"
-an intentional act in violation of the criminal law that is subject to penalization by the
state"
-Value consensus/normative/legal position"
What is Criminology?"
-Criminology: the scientific study of crime; the body of knowledge regarding crime as
a social phenomenon"
-relatively recent field"
-important questions"
what is criminalize and how to respond to crime?"
what does the best evidence tell us about our responses to crime and their
eectiveness?"
can the study of crime help us to respond to emerging challenges?"
Demographic shifts and rising crime rates"
-Demographics, crime and correlation"
-social changes of the 20th century"
-post-second world war era"
-helped to create the social conditions in which criminology emerged as an academic
discipline"
What do criminologists study?"
-Criminology: field devoted to the study of the causes and theories of crime, its
extent, and its eects on individuals and society"
-Criminal Justice: CJS is made up of the institutions and related processes that
enforce society’s laws"
Major Areas of Criminology"
1. Definition of crime and criminals"
2. Origins and role of law"
3. Social distribution of crime"
4. Causation of crime"
5. Patterns of criminal behaviour"
6. Societal reactions to crime"
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Tuesday, January 9, 2018
! of !2 2
Sociological Approaches"
-Focus on social order and social forces"
-Examine how social conditions (social context) can influence our laws and our crime
rates"
-History of law central to criminology"
changing nature of crime"
evolving nature of what might be considered appropriate responses to crime"
how and why new forms of criminality are created"
Criminalization"
-Criminologists study the criminalization process — how certain behaviours become
criminalized over time"
-Stigmatization — how oenders come to be demonized and labelled
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