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Final Exam Lecture notes Week 4-12; Pare

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Western University
Sociology 2266A/B
Stacy Hallman

Lecture 4 Psychology personality disorders psychopathsand crimeIntroductionThree hypothesesCriminals are ordinary people who make different choicesCriminals are ordinary people who face different personalsocial problemsCriminals are different from ordinary peoplePsychological criminology focuses on the third hypothesisFirst Hypothesis classical view rational choice theory Second Hypothesis criminals are psychologically different than noncriminals Third hypothesisPsychoanalytic theoryEvolved from Freuds workPersonality composed of three forcesId primitive biological urges selfish gratifications devil on shoulderEgo rationalitydecisionmaking mediator between the Id and the Superegoperson trying to make choiceSuperego ethics and morality the conscienceangel on shoulderCausal process Criminal behaviors occur when the Id is more dominant than the ego and the superego in a persons mind Thus the ego and superego are unable to control the aggressive selfish instincts of the IdCriminals ID is more dominant that ego and superegoPsychoanalytic theoryLimitationsVery difficult to test empirically because many of the underlying psychological processes are unconsciousAt the current time the psychoanalytic perspective on crime has more the status of an interesting story from the early days of psychology than a scientific theory of crime Difficult doing a scientific test because they are psychological Theories of moral developmentBasic principle in order to understand criminal behavior we need to understand how individuals develop or fail to develop a sense of morality and responsibilityEarly theorists French psychologist Jean Piaget followed by KohlbergTheories of moral development Moral reasoning is developed in stages and different people develop at different paceEgocentrism unable to understand the viewpoints of othersStage 1 Obey power avoid punishmentStage 2 Take care of yourself let other people take care of themselvesCooperation with others understand social expectationsStage 3 Show concerns for others putting yourself in the others shoesStage 4 understand the needs for rules serving common good and welfare like taxes go to schoolsUniversal principles understand what is best for all few people reach that stageStage 5 Understand individual and social rights vs rules for all members of a societyStage 6 Rights and obligations to principles that apply to all mankind equality justice freedom etc Cooperations with others you start to understand Theories of moral developmentCausal process individuals who develop to higher stages of moral reasoning will be better able to restrain themselves from committing crimes Those who fail to develop to the higher stages will be more vulnerable to the temptations of crimeEmpirically supported YesNegative relationship between indicators of moral development and delinquencyLimitations Tautological theory Since most crimes are immoral behaviors it is not very surprising moral development is a predictorNeed to explain why people vary in their ability to develop morallyTheory has a left wing agenda people who believe in conservative values will tend to score lower than those who believe in socialism or similar ideas Totalagy example you commit crime because you have a criminal personalityLecture 5 Psychology personality disorders psychopathsand crime Part 2Classic Social learning theoryClassic Social learning theory posits that criminal and violent behaviors are learned through modelingCausal process people learn criminal behaviors when they observe others committing crimes leading to positive outcomes Glorification getting away with it monetary rewards peer support Three major sources of social learning according to BanduraThe familyPeersSymbolic modeling eg violence on TV When we watch other people behaving in a criminal manner that leads to positive outcome is modelingWhen it has a negative outcome then you know crime is not worth An outcome can be positive when someone gets away with it maybe the consequences are not true o ex dont parents say do not shoplift but you do and you do not get caught and you have all this free stuff monetary rewards If commit act of deviance an we get support from peers its a positive outcome People who are close to you that are involved in deviance and being successful its more tempting modeling same idea for friends and others who have a larger influence on youSymbolic modeling we all have our own idols and when these people engage in violence it encourages us o for example when you watch fight club you wish you were apart of it media glamourizes criminal activitiesClassic Social learning theoryEmpirically supported not clearEx1 Positive relationship between watching violent programs on TV and violent behaviourEx2 Positive relationship between the delinquency of an individual and the delinquency of hisher peersLimitationsSelf selection effects violent people like violent TV programs delinquent kids like to spend time with other delinquent kidsAssumption of the passive imitatorJust because correlations exist does not mean they always affect each other
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