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Sociology 2267A/B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 51 pages long!)


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 2267A/B
Professor
Lisa Lyons
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Sociology 2267A/B
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Youth in Conflict Ch.1
The Rise and Fall of Delinquency
Pre-confederation period children treated the same as adults
Victorian period behavior of children an area of concern
Post-Victorian youth separated from adults to prevent lifestyle criminals
The Public Issue
Discourse: how things are talked about and understood, bother orally,
written, including formally (theory, reports, books, media), conversations
headlines continuously warn serious crime problem if youth crime not
curbed (youth in general, girls, school violence)
Media and the Politics of Youth Crime
politics of youth crime: ways in which youth understood and talked about
(formally and informally) and the actions, laws, and policies that derive from
this discourse
adult crimes surpass youth in quantity and severity, but youth more talked
about in news (usually about violent crimes)
rates of youth crime actually decreasing
people thought Young Offenders Act (YOA) was a slap on the wrist
2003 Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA), Bill C-3 replaced YOA, but media still
blew youth crime out of proportion
swarming, joyriding major threat to society via property damage, injuries,
death)
YCJA then came under attack saying it was still a slap on the wrist b/c youth
still out of control, the Conservative party revised it (2012)
***scan Federal Party Platforms on Young Offenders Table 1.1***
Two Opposing Sides
 YOA… Liberals wanted strategy for reform that involved consultations
w/public and special interest groups (public divided)
youth advocates:
o concerned w/problems experienced by youth rather than the crime
o youth crime exaggerated, misrepresented
o treated harsher than ever under the JDA, just as harsh as adults in
same offense (except for murder and manslaughter)
o preferred policies addressing poverty rather than punitive reform
o at-risk needs more social supports, nothing wrong w/the act, not
enough resources, problems lie in communities and school
law and order perspective:
o youth the enemy, adults need protection from them, they were out of
control
o group consisted of old buffalo police officers, security guards, small
business owners, homeowner associations
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o youth considered problems b/c they (1) lack respect, (2) lack
responsibility for actions, (3) violent
o YOA a problem b/c (1) youth couldn't be identified,  they weren’t
punished, (3) had more rights than victims, (4) youth protected by the
YOA
o get tough approach, kids getting too many chances, no threats to
motivate youth
McEvoy incident… woman killed by  yr old in stolen car accident after high
speed chase, already convicted of theft before, two days before sentencing
(brought forth discussions to change YCJA)
Family interested in (1) systematic failures of release, (2) YCJA provisions
contributed to release, (3) role of service providers in responding to at-risk
youth before and after criminal activity
The Good Old Days
Young people have always been responsibly for less crime than adults, most
involve property crime
History of youth crime not as readily available as it is today, not kept in same
manner
In early European settlement, crime info recorded in reports of colonial
administrators, age of prisoners not always recorded
No consistent prison records until 1835, the year of Kingston Pen (first
Canadian prison)
Penitentiary: 19th century term for prisons based on a philosophy of
penitence and punishment to atone for wrongs
Researchers during that time more interested in justice system than
behaviors of youth
Lawless and Disobedient Youth: The 17th and 18th Centuries
Concerns were expressed about youth, but info sketchy
Boys in New France (1982) described as lawless, disobedient, girls as vain
and lazy … altogether hard and ferocious
Documented cases usually petty crimes like vandalism, petty theft, brawling,
swearing, immortality, violations of local ordinances, abandonment of
service contracts... some recorded serious crimes by no age
Children had no rights, at the mercy of their parents and the state
Infanticide, child labor, child slavery common
Individual rights of children not popular until 19th century
From 11th century in English common law (brought to Canada), children
under  lacked capacity to commit a crime, evidence required from -13
THE COLONIAL PUBLIC ISSUE
The issue was that youth weren’t as subservient and dependent on adults in
the new world as they were in the old
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