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Final

Sociology 2270A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Participant Observation, Instrumental And Value-Rational Action, Karl MannheimPremium

27 pages68 viewsFall 2017

Department
Sociology
Course Code
Sociology 2270A/B
Professor
chimbos
Study Guide
Final

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Midterm Exam 2 Textbook Notes
THE SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE
Karl Marx Economic determinism and social class conflict
Most famous work The Maifesto of the Couist Part
argues: the history of all existing societies is the history of class conflict / struggle and society divided
into two hostile camps / social classes
no strong middle class
suggested armed revolutions by the lower classes against the upper-classes
Social Structural Frameworks the study of large scale structures and processes of society (macrosociology)
Basi otraditio: if a soiet has so a rih people ho ould so a e so poor ad ho ould this
situatio hage/ho a e hage this?
most profound: critic analysis of contemporary capitalistic societies
Me’s oralit ad the soiet i hih he lies i
if society is corrupt then the individual is corrupt
if society is moral then the individual will be moral
clear departure from the Christian premise, society is a factor contributing to deviant behavior
Social Conflict perspective emphases:
1. Power who has the power?
2. Conflict - conflict is inevitable, each group is trying to be powerful
3. change as permanent features of society
The conflict perspective views society an as arena of inequality generating conflict, the conflict is between:
a) social classes (class struggles)
b) cultural / ethnic groups
c) religious groups
d) racial groups
e) generations the young and the old
Economic Determinism suggests that the institution of economy is the fundamental determinate of the
structure of society
economy must change first otherwise all the other institutions will suffer
economy changes = all other institutions change
economy is the most important institution
The Dialectic
G.W.F. Hegel historical change has been driven by the contradictory understandings that are the essence of
reality, our attempts to resolve the contradictions, and the new contradictions that develop
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Marx fused the to ost iportat eleets fro these thikers to reate dialetial aterialis: Hegel’s’
dialeti ad Feuerah’s aterialis
Marx accepted the centrality of contradictions to historical change
Said these are real existing contradictions, this led to a method for studying social phenomena: the
dialectical
The Dialectical Method
Fact and value
In this method, social values and social facts are not separated
It’s ipossile/udesirale to e dispassioate aout hat ou’re studig
The best researchers are passionate/committed to their ideas
Reciprocal Relations
This method does not see a one-way cause-and-effect relationship, one factor may have many effects
on the other and visa vera
When considering causal relationships, these researchers also look for reciprocal relations
Past, Present, Future
Dialects are concerned with studying the historical roots of the contemporary world
Aware of present social trends, believe the sources of the future exist in the present
No Inevitabilities
The future is not determined by the present
(Hegel) Thesis, antithesis, and synthesis model
o Social phenomena (thesis) will eventually spawn an opposing form (antithesis) and that the
clash between the two forms will create a new form (synthesis)
o Ongoing process between antithesis and synthesis
o inadequate for sociological use because there are no inevitabilities, and thus we cannot divide
social phenomena into this manner, Marx looked at grand abstractions apposing this idea
o he predicted there would be another synthesis with modern industrialized society, however we
now know that if you have a strong middle class a revolution is not likely to occur
o major forces of change originate in the economy, the exploitative system of capitalism
in simple societies, communism is inevitable because it gave way to the division of labor which created
many social classes
Actors and Social Structures
large-scale structures help people fulfill themselves, but also pose a grave threat to humanity
interconnects the past, present and future to this in a complexed way
Human Potential
Marx believed there was a real contradiction between our human potential and the way that we
must work in capitalist society
Human nature varies historically and socially
Species being our human potentials/powers distinguish us from other species
Human nature dictates: how society should be sustained and changed
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Labor and Human Nature
What distinguished us from animals? Our species being
Objectification our ability to create external objects out of our internal thoughts
Laor is….
1. The objectification of our purpose
2. The establishment of an essential relation between human need and the material objects of our
need (works to satisfy our needs)
3. The transformation of our human nature
Labor encompasses all productive actions where we transform material nature in accordance with
our purpose
We labor in response to our needs
the labor itself transforms our needs, which can lead to new forms of productive activity
Satisfaction of needs can create new needs
Marx it is the transformation of our needs through labor that is the engine of human history
Marx the transformation of the individual and their consciousness through labor and the
transformation of society are not separate
Alienation
Alienation the perverted relation by capitalism of labor and human nature
Under capitalism, we no longer see our labor as an expression of our purpose, there is no
objectification
Labor in capitalism is reduced to a means to an end earning money
Used this concept to show the effects of capitalist production on human being and society
Has four basic components:
1. Alienation of productive activity
Workers do’t produe ojets aordig to their eeds, ut the eeds of the apitalists who
employ them; alienating workers from certain activities
2. Alienation of the product
the product of the orkers’ laor does’t elog to the
no matter how desperate workers are, they cannot use the product to satisfy their needs
without purchasing it from the capitalists
3. Alienated from their fellow workers
workers are forced to work with strangers, technology increases isolation of workers
4. Alienated from their human potential
People are not able to transform/fulfill themselves, they are reduced to working like machines
The Structures of Capitalist Society
Mar’s aalsis of alieatio as a respose to the eooi, soial, ad politial hanges that were
going on around him
Wanted to create a society where human potential could be expressed
The capitalist economic system is the primary cause of alienation
Capitalism is more than an economic system, but a system of power
o Political powers have been transformed into economic relations
o Capitalism is a political system, way of exercising power, and process for exploiting workers
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