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Foundations Final Review.docx

by OneClass388997 , Fall 2014
12 Pages
Fall 2014

Course Code
Sociology 2270A/B
Agata Piekosz
Study Guide

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Foundations Final Review
Roots of Chaos and Disorder
The French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Urbanization (Metropolis- Simmel)
Feminism (Recognition of Women)
Religion (Religious Change)
Social Forces
The “French Revolution” and Urbanization, ex. Can be thought of as ‘social
forces causing chaos and change
‘The Enlightenment produced new and emerging intellectual factors, ideas,
theories and perspectives
Enlightenment- period of remarkable intellectual development and change in
philosophical thought
Conservative Reaction
Not everyone shared Marx’s vision of Revolution
Many theorists ascribed to a mix of Enlightenment and Counter-enlightenment
Negative ‘change’ which caused fear and anxiety
Grand Narratives- Charles Taylor- modern persons and societies are shaped by moral
orders, these moral orders are communicated through cultural frameworks
Ameliorism- desire to solve social problems by reforming individuals
Social Evolution (Comte)
Theological Stage- prior to 1300, where supernatural powers and religious powers
were admired, where the social and physical world was seen as produced by God
Metaphysical Stage- from 1300-1800 belief that ‘nature rather than ‘personalized
gods explains everything
Positivistic Stage- characterized by the beliefs in science
Individual Consciousness:
Simmel- individual consciousness in relation to smaller groups and how it
occurred in a context of social interaction – or what he called ‘sociation’
Durkheim- individual experience in modernity, as labour is more specialized, the
collective is held together on the basis of need for binding that creates a new
social space for freedom (more likely in organic/modern society)
Are ‘perceptions that we hold about individuals, groups, or ideas, which are
created through social or cultural practices
Social construct- a way in which we segregate people into groups based on race,
gender, sex etc
Autonomy: having power and being able to withhold that power- capacity to be your
own person, to direct own conditions, desires, characteristics
Basic- the minimal status of being responsible and independent or able to speak
for yourself in any given situational
Ideal- functions as something to be obtained in the lives of most individuals, it is
rarely something that is achievable though this does not mean that individuals do
not seek it
oThe capacity to govern one self
oThe conditions of self government
oThe personal ideal
oThe set of rights/morals/values that make up our individual autonomy
‘Self-Rule (self control)- composed of:
1. Independence of ones choices away from the manipulation of others and;
2. The capacity to rule oneself
Agency- capacity of individuals to think on their own, to make their own choices
Structure- things that individuals create the stuff that limits our individual actions
Material- like economic processes or economic exchange
Ideational- the rules, laws, customs, norms, traditions that govern society
Hierarchy, too much power and influence in which structure effects us, don’t
consider personality and undermines reflexive thinking
Marx- inevitable awareness, individual actions in play- human potential for
change- species being (concept of human potential)
Simmel- individual consciousness provided a conduit for creativity
Double-Consciousness (W.E.B. DuBois)- a sense of “two-ness”, or feeling among
African Americans of seeing and measuring themselves through others eyes. Racism
leads to an internalization of oppression, which individuals and groups could be make
Methodological Relationism
The relationship between habitus (mental or cognitive structures) and field
(network of relations among the objective positions within it)
Operating in two main ways:
1. The field conditions the habitus
2. The habitus constitutes the field as something that is meaningful
Horizontal/Vertical Integration ex. Religion
Macro-Objective [organization]: the church as a global institution.
Macro-Subjective [norms values]: shared norms /practices of a particular faith,
ex. no sex before marriage.
Micro-Objective [patterns of action]: going to church every Sunday, lighting the
Micro-Subjective [mental processes]: is more relatable to individual perceptions
of ‘faith that have little to do with ‘institutionalized relations’.

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