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Sociology 1020 Midterm: Test-One-Review

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Western University
Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW 1 Chapter One: The Sociological Imagination What is Sociology? • Sociology concerns itself with theories about social relationships between individuals and groups of people within a particular society • Patterned group behavior • Not rules, but patterns that we all abide to LEGEND • Describe the social world People • Explain how and why Topics • Critique existing social arrangement Vocabulary • Magic Realism: a different way of looking at the world. Social Structures: • Microstructures: patters of relatively intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interactions • Macrostructures: overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above our circle of intimates and acquaintances • Global structures: patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level Peter Berger Emile Durkheim and Suicide • • • Suicide rates are not just influenced by psychological disorders, but also strongly by sociological fact•rs • Suicide rates vary because of differences in the degree of social solidarity in different groups • • As the level of social solidarity increases, suicide rates decline. • o Suicides that occur in high-solidarity settings are altruistic ▪ Altruistic suicide: occurs when norms tightly govern behaviour so that individual • actions are in the group’s best interest • • ▪ Egotistic suicide: Results from a lack of integration of the individual into society beca•se of weak social ties to other • ▪ Anomic suicide: Occurs when norms governing behaviour are vaguely defined. • • • “To see the general in the particular” • Identify general patterns in the behaviour of particular people • Society impacts individuals based on the society they belong in o We recognize all individuals are unique, but sociologists notice that society acts differently, based on the categories we belong in The Sociological Imagination – C. Wright Mills • The foundation of Sociology • We see the world through the lens of our own experience, which inhibits/limits our understanding • Ability to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures • Origins are the scientific revolution, democratic revolution and industrial revolution • Step outside of your everyday life to look at world through different perspectives or lenses through the Three Levels of Analysis: o Biography: ▪ Micro level ▪ Individual self and experiences – experiences make up who you are ▪ Human Agency: the ability to act, and the ability to choose to do something or not to o Milieu: ▪ Meso-interaction level ▪ Community – this is your everyday community, where you interact with other people, each and every day 2 SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW ▪ Gemeinschaft – a sense of belonging o History ▪ Macro-level ▪ Society – our society is Canada, but it can also be a group within Canada. ▪ Structures in our society: every society has different structures, and how they operate differs depending on the society it is in • Ex. Age structures, gender structures, • Some refrain us; ex. Wealthy vs. poor • The levels of analysis allows us to follow trends and patterns, especially in cases that we need to learn more about. • Private troubles vs. public troubles Anthony Giddens: Structuration Theory: Argues that the structure has the ability to impact on our ability to act We have a double involvement in society: • Products: We are a reflection and a product of how we are raised in our society – how society has impacted us • Producers: We have the agency, the ability to act, so we produce the next generation and how we raise them will bring about change (produce the new products through giving birth and raising children) The Origins of Sociology (Theories) Emergence of Sociology: • 1838 Aguste Comte: “a new way of looking at the world” • Coined the term sociology • Understanding rapid social change, industrialization 17 -19 century • Positivism • Religion focuses on the ideal society What is a theory? • A theory is a statement of how and why facts are related • Based on theoretical paradigm: a basic image of society, guiding thinking and research Structural Functionalism: • Durkheim, macro level • Looks at the broad patterns that shapes society as a whole • Structures: Set up in every society, and create stable patterns of social behaviour • Institutions: Subsystems of enduring patterns of social relationships • Society is made up of smaller parts (institutions) working together to ensure the stability of the society o Change in one structure creates change in another (change = disruptive) • Normal state = equilibrium • Manifest functions: visible and intended effects of social structures • Latent functions: are invisible and unintended effects of social structures • Eufunction: A positive benefit for society maintaining equilibrium (maintains equilibrium in society) • Dysfunction: Element or process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or reduce its stability • Have to maintain equilibrium, or eufunction  dysfunction Emile Durkheim: Structural Functionalism • Society is a social system, that has basic needs for survival o Basic needs = order, stability, reproductions and work • The social structures and institutions fulfill these needs SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW 3 • Anomie: (normlessness) rapid socialization changes to anomie (a lot of modern societies experience this • Evolving Societies: o Change from mechanical solidarity  organic solidarity o Key to change is an expanding division of labor • Preindustrial societies have a simple division of labor based on mechanical solidarity • Modern societies have a complex division of labor based on organic solidarity Conflict Theory • Karl Marx, Macro • Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change o Society not about consensus • Highlights division based on inequality – dominant group and subordinate group o Society structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the many ▪ Wealth ▪ Power What everyone is always struggling for ▪ Prestige • Factors such as race, sex, gender and age linked to inequality • Alienation: o From the act of working o From the products of work  exploitation – cheap labor = cheap products o From other workers  always competing, never coming together to fight for rights o From human potential  alienation from species-being: human potential, creativity Karl Marx: Conflict Theory • Will always be a struggle between the dominate and subordinate groups • Economic process (mode of production) determine all processes and social change o Ownership over means of production (over economic system) is the basis for other forms of inequality • Class: social category based on ownership and control over means of production • Two classes: o Bourgeoisie o Proletariat • The classes have different interests, leading to class conflict based on class consciousness – eventually will lead to a revolution • Social institutions: Society’s subsystems, organized to meet basic human needs o Economic institution is primary, all other institutions support it • False Consciousness: Exploitations of social problems grounded in individuals, not in society Symbolic Interactionism: • Max Weber, micro • Society arises as a shared reality, a symbol is something that meaningfully represents something else • Most interaction is symbolic (dependent on language or gestures) • About the everyday and focuses on the milieu and biography o W.I. Thomas: “What we define as real, is real in its consequences” o How you define a situation will dictate how you react to the same situation Max Weber: Symbolic Interactionism • Idealism: We need to understand people in terms of how they view or line their world (or their milieu) • Verstehen: to understand • No single factor determines society or the individual • Social conflict may originate in values, statuses, ideas and not economic interests only • Societies differ in terms of the way their society’s members think about the world 4 SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW • Protestant Ethic and Rise of Capitalism (1907) o Argues that it is ideas that can transform the world – talks about Calvinists o Calvin: Broke away from the Catholic Church because he didn’t believe they have a real relationship with God. Principle was predetermination o Revolutionization of society: change from tradition to rationality (doing something in the most efficient means possible Feminisms: • The study of women’s lives, micro/macro level • Macro: constraints and reforms of resistance in women’s lives • Micro: representation of gender through language and emotion management • Maternal Feminisms: o Early 19 Century, Canada o Mural crusaders aligned with middle class men to improve Canada o Clean up society, women’s sufferage • Liberal Feminisms: o Early 1960’s o Women gain equality via access to education and jobs • Radical Feminisms o Patriarch is the universal cause of women’s oppression o Women should organize separately from men to protect their interests • Marxist-Social Feminisms o Gender inequalities based on economic factors influenced by inequalities ▪ White upper/middle class women have more rights than working women, but still subordinate ▪ Women should organize with men of the same social class to start capitalist revolution and solve issues of gender inequality Characteristics of Feminisms • Gender inequalities – not biological but socially constructed • Patriarchy present in all societies • Transnational Feminism: women of different races, classes, ethnic, cultural groups etc, all have different social experiences. o The Patriarchy doesn’t influence all women in the same way Chapter Twenty: Methods Milgram Study: • 86% of people go all the way up to 450 volts • First did the experiment on men, thinking women wouldn’t go all the way, However, when they re-did the experiment, they found that they were wrong • Conformity and compliance • Agentic Shift: projecting responsibility on someone else. o E.g., if the shocks were real and they killed the man, the person who administered the shocks could project the responsibility of his death on the supervisor who told him to continue with the shocks Research Ethics: Code of Conduct: 1. Respect subjects right to privacy and dignity 2. Maintain objectivity and integrity in research 3. Protect subjects from personal harm 4. Preserve confidentiality SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW 5 5. Seek informed consent 6. Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance 7. Disclose all sources of financial support 8. Demonstrate cultural sensitivity The Basics: Sociological Investigation starts with two simple requirements: • Use the sociological imagination • Be curious and ask questions Five Ways to Know the World: 1. Personal 2. Tradition: this is the way we’ve always done it 3. Authority: experts tell us how it is 4. Religion: accepting a truth based on a belief o Numbers one to four all fall under the normative approach: what ought to be 5. Sciences: truth based on controlled, systematic observation o Number five is empirical attempts to answer based on evidence The Scientific Method 1. Define the Problem o State as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate o Operational definition: explanation of abstract concept specific enough to allow researcher to assess concept 2. Review Literature o Scholarly studies relevant to your subject o Clarify the problem 3. Formulate Hypothesis o A “best guess” about the relationship between two or more variables o Variable: Measurable trait subject to changed under different conditions ▪ Independent variables ▪ Dependent variables o Casual logic: involved relationships between a variable and a particular consequence o Correlation: a relationship by which two or more variables change together o Spurious Correlation: an apparent though false relationship between two or more variables caused by a third variable 4. Collecting and Analyzing Data o Selecting the sample ▪ Sample: selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population ▪ Random Sample: when every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected o Ensuring validity and reliability ▪ Validity: degree to which a measure truly reflects the phenomenon being studied ▪ Reliability: extent to which a measure provides consistent results 5. Developing the Conclusion o Support the hypothesis o Sociological attitudes do not always generate data that supports the original hypothesis Surveys: Quantitative Research: • Interviews o Face to face or telephone 6 SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW o High response rate o Probe beyond questionnaire • Questionnaires o Used for larger studies o People less likely to lie, cannot expand on questions o Inexpensive = better for large samples o Can investigate behaviours that wouldn’t otherwise be ethical (ex. Awkward questions) • Field Research: Qualitative Research o Relies on what is seen in naturalistic observation • Observation o Participant observations o Ethnography: efforts to describe entire social settings through extended systematic observation ▪ Detailed description of a particular culture or way of life, or the written results of a participant-observation study (as in txt) o Weber – verstehen: to understand • In-depth interviews o Uncover layers of meaning in participant responses o Semi-structured: specific questions but flexible to enable participants to direct their responses o Unstructured: open-ended, not confined to core sets of questions • Experiments o Artificially created situations allowing manipulation of variables o Experimental group: exposed to independent variable o Control group: not exposed to independent variable o Hawthorne Effect: Reactivity ▪ People involved in a study may be influenced by the process of being studied, the study has an impact on the subjects • Use of existing sources o Secondary analysis: research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data o Content analysis: systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale • Limitations of Sociology o Social patterns change constantly o Life in “test tube” – value-free objectivity Chapter Two: Culture Culture: SOCIOLOGY 1020 TEST ONE REVIEW 7 • Primary strategy for group survival • Understanding it helps us develop a sociological imagination Origins and Components of Culture: • Abstraction: Creating symbols o Human culture exists only because we can think abstractly o The ability to abstract enables humans to learn and transmit knowledge in a way no other animal can o Symbols allow us to
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