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Sociology Midterm Review 1020 intro to sociology

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Sociology 1020
Gale Cassidy

Sociology Midterm Review December 1, 2013 Chapter One Sociology- systematic study of social behavior and human groups. Focuses on social relationships on people’s attitudes and behavior and how societies change. The Sociological Imagination  C. Wright Mills coined the term  An awareness of the relationship between the individual and the wider society.  Example: comprehend our personal settings and the remote impersonal world that surrounds us (drinking coffee, eating chocolate)  Key element is the ability to view our own society as an outsider would rather than from personal experiences  Example: Canadians eat while walking, japan they do not because they want to appreciate the food, seem as disrespectful. Science- body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observations. Natural science- study of physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change. Social Science- study of various aspects of human society; social behavior and people. (Sociology, anthropology, economics, history, phycology, and political science).  Anthropology- past cultures and pre industrial societies that continue today, the origins of men and women  Economics- explore ways in which people purchase and sell goods and services, and money  Historians- concerned with events and people from the past  Political- international relations, government, power and authority  Physiologist- personality and individual behavior  Sociology- influence that society has on peoples attitudes and behaviours and the way people shape society Theory- template containing definitions and relationships used to organize and understand the social world  Sociologists develop theory to explain how individual behavior can be understood within a social context Anomie- loss of direction that society feels when social control of individual has become ineffective  Emile Durkheim  Loss their purpose or sense of direction during social change Verstehen- German words for understanding of ones own intellectual work  Max weber Ideal Type- construct, made up model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated  Max Weber Macrosociology- concentrates on large-scale studies or entire civilians. (a country)  Suicide of different countries as an example  Robert merton Microsociology- study of small groups and often uses experimental studies  Robert merton Sociologists 19 century Emile Durkheim (1951)  Suicide data  Concerned as to social forces that cause people to take their lives, not why they actually do it  Interested in suicide rates  Concerned with a larger social context (macro sociology) Auguste Comte (1798-1857)  Most influential philosophers of nineteenth century  Believed that theoretical science of society and investigation of behavior were needed to improve society.  Coined the term SOCIOLOGY Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)  Translated Comete’s work to English  Observations and social practices from Britain and north America  Book; society in America  Examines religion, politics, and immigration in US.  Examined social class, gender, and race Herbert spencer (1820-1903)  Did not feel compelled or concerned with fixing society like Harriet did  Merely hoped to understand society better  Societies are bound to change eventually Max Weber  Law, economics, history, philosophy  Taught his students Verstehen  To understand behavior, must learn subjective meanings attach to their actions and how they view and explain their own behavior Karl Marx  Shared with emile and max dual interest in philosophical issues  Friedrich Eagles-  Communist manifesto Modern Developments Charles Horton Cooley- modern development (1929)  Looked at smaller units  Face to face interactions, not necessarily huge groups  Understanding of small groups Robert Merton (1968) (nodern)  Combining theory and research  Different ways on how people achieve success in life  Macro and Micro sociology Harold Innis (modern)  Contributes to our understanding from a political economic perspective  How extraction of resources relates to development of Canadian state John Porter (modern)  The Vertical Mosaic  Social class and inequality as it relates to race, ethnicity, and social classes  Pointed out that upward social mobility was a reality for only select ethnic groups in society Four Major Theoretical Perspectives (no one is correct, use all four)  Functionalist Perspective o Parts of society are structured to maintain stability o Works as a organism o Everything interacts with one another (family, contributing work, chores, cook, ect) or prostitute, the seller, earns money, the buyer, satisfied with their purchase o Macrosociology o Equilibrium model- as changed occur in one part of society, their must be adjustments in other parts o Talcott Parons- viewed society as a vast network all connected to one another, each helps to maintain system as a whole o Social Strains will occur o Manifest Functions- (Robert Merton): institutions that are open, stated, conscious functions. Recognize consequences of society  College, university excellent academics o Latent Functions- unconscious or unintended that may reflect hidden purpose of institution  Colleges and universities hold down employment o Dysfunction- element or process of society that may disrupt a social system or lead to decrease in stability.  Conflict Perspective o Social behavior best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups o Macrosociology o Social change brought through conflict (marx) o Conflict not necessarily violent o The Marxist View  Karl marx: struggle enviable given the exploitation of workers under capitalist economic system  Struggle of exploitation- normal and desirable aspect of social change  Feminist Perspective o Micro or macro o Explain and change gender roles, inequality between men and women o Liberal Feminism  Advocates women equality obtained through opportunity and freedom o Marxist Feminism  Capitalism for the oppression of women o Socialist Feminism  Gender relations formed by patriarchy and capitalism o Radical Feminism  Embedded in Patriarchy, womens view on reproduction o Transnational Feminism  Political power and capitalism oppress women around the world o Dorothy Smith (1926)  Sociology that is built on everyday experiences of women, sociology used to ignore these experiments  Interactionist Perspective o Microsociology o Generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction to understand society as a whole o Erving Goffman  The presentation of the self  Dramaturgical Approach- compares everyday life to setting of theater and stage o George Herbert Mead & Charles Cooley  Founder of interactionist perspective  How individual behavior was influenced by a larger group or society  Theory of the self  Develops as newborns grow and interact with others  Significant Others- individuals who are important in the development of the self (parents)  Generalized others – attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations that a child takes into consideration Chapter Two: Sociological Research Scientific method- scientific method is a systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem  Define the problem o Operational Definition- explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow the researcher to assess the concept. o Could use functionalist perspective  Review the literature  Formulate a testable hypothesis o Hypothesis- speculative statement between two or more factors known as variables o Variables- measureable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions o Independent Variable- cause or influence another variable (education) has stigma, change to see what happens o Dependent Variable- the action depends on the influence of the independent variable (the outcome) (higher pay) o Casual Logic- relationship between a condition or variable and a particular consequence with one leading to another o Correlation- exits when a change in one variable occurs at the same time with a change in another variable (people getting info from tv, or dumb downs magazines or news papers)  Collect & analyze data o Survey, observation, experiment, existing sources o Sample- selection from a larger population that represents that population o Random Sample- every member of an entire population being studied has the same chance of being selected. o Validity- degree to which a scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study. Valid measure depends on accurate data. o Reliability- extent to which a measure produces consistent results. (using same consistent measure)  Select Research Design o Research Design- detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically. o Survey- study, generally form of an interview or questionnaire, provides information about how people think or act.  Interview- face to face or telephone  Questionnaire- printed or written form to obtain information. o Quantitative research- collects and reports data in numerical form. Can not look at topic in great depth or detail  studying content o Qualitative research- what is seen in naturalistic settings and focuses on more personal side, depth of topic, small groups ect.  Ethnography- study of an entire social setting through systematic observation. How subjects themselves view their social setting. o Observation- collects information through direct participation or observing a certain group/individual. Allow sociologists to examine certain behaviors. o Experiments- artificially created situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables o Experimental group- exposed to an independent variable (test of new drug and effects, give it to experimental group) o Control group- is not, no stigma  Develop the conclusion o Supporting hypothesis – data supports our hypothesis o Controlling for other factors-  Control Variable- unchanged in an experiment, no stigma  Ideas for future research Hawthorne Effect- subjects of research who deviate from their typical behavior because they realize they are under observation. Secondary Analysis- research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data.  Non reactive, since it does not influence peoples behaviors  If they rely on data by others, they might not have effective results that they need Content Analysis- systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale.  Erving goffman – advertisements portrayed women as inferior to men. Ethics of Research Code of Ethics- standards of acceptable behavior developed by or for members of a profession. “the right to know versus the right to privacy” ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter Three: Culture Culture- totality of learned socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. Includes ideas, values, and customs of a group of people. Society- large numbers of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside their area, and participate in a culture.  Largest form of human group  Learn culture and transmit it to one generation to the next Cultural Universals- societies develop certain common practices and beliefs. Adaptions to meet essential human needs (food, shelter, and clothing).  George Murdock o Sports, cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine, and sexual restrictions. Innovation- process of introducing a new object or idea. Interests sociologists because of social consequences that introducing something new can have on society.  Discovery- making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality (DNA molecule)  Invention- existing cultural items are combined into a form that did not exist before Diffusion- process by which cultural item is spread from group to group or society to society. (exploration, military conquest, missionary work, influence of mass media, tourism, and the internet.) Globalization- world wide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets. (mcdonalds spread from north America to hong kong) Technology- information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires. – Gerhard Lenski Material Culture- physical or technological aspects of our daily lives, including food items, factories, and raw materials.  William F. Ogburn Non-Material Culture- ways on using material objects and also to culture, beliefs, customs ect.  More resistant to change than material culture.  William F. Ogburn Cultural Lag- period of maladjustment when the non-material culture is still adapting to the material conditions.  William F. Ogburn Language- abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture. Includes speech, written, numerals, symbols, gestures, non-verbal communication. Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis – two linguistics, describe the role of language in interoperating our world. Language precedes thought. Symbols and grammar organize the word for us. Language is not a given. Non- Verbal Communication- not using words Norms- established standards of behaviors maintained by society. Must be widely shared and understood. (wash hands after using the bathroom) Formal Norms- generally written down and specify strict rules for punishment of violaters. (laws) – governed social control Informal Norms- generally understood but not precisely recorded. Proper dress standard of informal norm. Mores- deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society. Obedience to mores, violations can lead to penalties. Mores against murder and child abuse. Folkways- norms governing everyday behavior. Focus on shaping behavior of members of sa culture. Sanctions- penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. positive sanctions, negative sanctions. Values- collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper- or bad, undesirable, and improper in a culture.  What people in a culture prefer  Honoring parents, love, health, ownership Theoretical Perspectives Functionalist- maintain stability requires support of society; usually central values and common norms.  Working towards stabilizing culture Conflict- common culture may exist, but it is argued that it serves to maintain the privileges of certain groups.  Dominant Ideology- describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests. o Georg Lukacs & Antonio Gramsci Interactionist- examine shopping or consumer practices to from a micro perspective in order to understand a larger society. Feminist Perspective- mass media, dominant ideology contribute to control against women. Subculture- segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from a pattern of the larger society. Counter culture- when a subculture opposes certain aspects of the larger culture. (old person oppsses same sex marriage, was raised for 60 years that it should be a man and woman) Culture shock- anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain, uncomfortable when in an unfamiliar culture. (watching Portuguese people kill pigs). Multiculturalism- promotes cultural and racial diversity and full and equal participation of individuals and communities of all origins. Eurocentrism- discrimination and prejudice to those are seen as non European and thus, the other. Cultural imperialism- the influence of the material or non material elements of a culture on another culture or cultures. Ethnocentrism- tendency to assume that our culture and way of life are superior to all others.  William Sumner Cultural relativism- views peoples behaviors from the perspective of their own culture. Places a priority in understanding other cultures. Xenocentrism- belief that the products, styles, or ideas of our own society are inferior or less to those that originate elsewhere. (French whine better than Canada whine) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter four : Socialization Socialization- Nature versus nurture- biological inheritance and environmental factors (heredity vs. environment) both influence socialization process, one factor operates without the other Nell (Jodie Foster)- crouches like animal, was raised that way (environmental factor) Isabell- parents were ashamed, kept her hidden from the world, no contact, lived in a dark room, could not speak. Her mother could not speak or hear. Ealr socialization is important Monkey- more attached to the mother who gives love and nurture, rather than the mother who feeds them. Only goes to mother who feeds them when hungry, not for anything else. Spent more time clinging to the non-mother who gave them love and nurture. Developed greater social attachment to warmth. Sociobiology- systematic study of the biological bases of social behavior. Assume that particular forms of behavior are genetics. Suggests that all behavior is the result of genetic or biological factors. Social interaction plays no role in shaping people.  How human nature is affected by the genetic composition of a group of people who share similar characteristics. Self- distinct identity that sets us apart from others  George Herbert Mead  Develop and change throughout our lives Looing Glass Self- learn who we are by interaction with others. Our view of ourselves comes from the impressions of others and how they see us. “self is the product of our social interactions with people”  Charles Cooley  Imagine how we present ourselves to others  Imagine how others evaluate us  Develop a feeling of ourselves Stages of the Self- the self emerges  George Mead continuing Charles Cooley work  Three stages o Preparatory Stage- children imitate the people around them, especially family members  Symbols- gestures, objects that form the bases of human communication o Play Stage- child learns to pretend to be other people, becomes a character  Role taking- mentally assuming the perspective of another person. (asking parent for a favour when they are in a good mood, not bad) o Game Stage- about 8 or 9 of age, begins to consider actual tasks. Grasp their own social positions, and others around them Presentation of the Self- convey
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