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Exam Review for Methods and Intro

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

What is Sociology? - it concerns itself with theories about the social relations between individuals between individuals and groups of people within a particular society - sociology focuses on "Patterned group behaviour" - Peter Berger - to see the general in the particular - identify general patterns in the behaviour of particular individuals - unique individuals - categories - sex, sexual orientations, social/economic class, ect. -the socialogical imagination - C. Wright Mills - levels of analysis: - biography - human agency - individual - milieu - family (everyday experience) - gemeinschaft (sense of belonging) - Tonnies - history - society/structures - Anthony Giddens - Structuration theory - double involvement of self in society - products - we are products of Canada - producers - we can change our political stants, family/change ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------- Investigative Methods - bethics Milgram study: - we do deal with humans - if we want to do a study, we need to go in front of an ethics committee - it is a human condition - Milgram study: - one person a teacher, other a student (who was an actor) - teacher shocked student for every wrong answer he/she got - doctor told teacher to carry on if the teacher questioned it - no one was physically hurt research ethics: code of conduct: - respect subject's right to privacy and dignity - maintain objectivity and intergrity in reseach - protect subjects frim personal harm - preserve confidentially - seek informed consent - acknowledge research collaboration and assistance - disclose all sources of financial support - demonstrate cultural sensitivity the basics - sociological invesigation has 2 requirements: 1) Use the sociological perspective 2) be curious and ask questions - empirical evidence: evidence you can get using one of the five senses 5 ways of knowing the world: 1) Personal: your own experience 2) Tradition: it has always been that way 3) Authority: they tell us how it is 4) Religion: excepted truth 5) Science: controlled, systematic observations - Imperial approach (supported by evidence) - all ways are valued, and the first four are the Normative Approach (the way it should be) Scientific Method: - defining the problem - operational definition: explanation of abstract concept specific enought to allow researcher to asses concept - a hypothesis is a best guess about what relationship we think we will find (relationship between two or more variables (cause and effect) - variable: measured trait subject to change under different conditions (independent what causes the effect, dependent on the independent variable) - causal logic: involves relationships between a variable and particular consequences (independent causes dependent) - correlation: a relationship by which two or more variables change together - spurious correlation: an appearent, though false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variable (example. tv and weight-gain = eating while watching tv and en-activity) - collecting and analyzing data: - when selecting the sample look at
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