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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Sociology 1020 Midterm Review #1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Sociology What is Sociology? • Looking at the world in a different way, represented by a pair of binoculars • Four theories focus on the relationship between individuals and groups within society • Key Idea: o It concerns itself with theories about social relations between individuals and groups of people within a particular society o Society focuses on pattered group behavior Peter Berger: “To see the general in particular” • Identifies general patterns in the behavior of particular individuals • There are 3 particular groups: o We are all unique individuals o We all belong to different categories o Society acts on you and influences you based on the categories you inhabit The Sociological Imagination: C. Wright Mills • Based on our own subjective experiences • In order to develop a wider world view we must develop an ability to analyze the world at a greater level • Incorporate into your understanding the 3 levels of analysis 1. BIOGRAPHY (individual experience)  HUMAN AGENCY (the ability to act) 2. MILIEU (everyday context, interactions)  GEMEINSCHAFT (your community) 3. HISTORY (influences who you are)  SOCIETY/STRUCTURES • Operates as an individual in a given milieu Private Troubles vs. Public Troubles: • Private troubles: focuses on the individual • Public troubles: problems at the level of society Structuration Theory Anthony Giddens • There are public and private troubles • Structuraction: the ability to act/influence • The structures in your society have an impact on you too • Double Involvement of the self: we are both products of the structures in society and producers of society Sociological Theories: • Sociology is: the systematic study of social behavior in human societies • The goals of sociology are: a. To describe the social world b. To explain how and why c. To critique existing social arrangements • Focuses our attention on group patterns Emergence of Sociology: Auguste Comte- 1883 • “A new way of looking at the world” • Understood there was rapid social change • Industrialization from the 17 to the 19 century • Positivism: understanding the world based on scientific methods • No longer religious based but scientific based • We analyze, collect and describe Sociological Perspectives: • Seeing the world in a different way • Different theorists can look at the same issues in society and view very different things • Four major theories: 1. Structural Functionalism 2. Conflict Theory 3. Symbolic Interactionism 4. Feminism What is a Theory? • Making sense of the world • A theory is a statement of how and why certain facts are related • Acts as a lenses to understand facts that aren’t simple to interpret • It explains patterns that aren’t obvious to us • Based on theoretical paradigms: a basic image of society guiding thinking and research • Set of assumptions that guide research Structural Functionalism: • A macro-level of orientation  the big picture • Views society as a complex system of interrelated parts, like an organism • Broad patterns shape society as a whole • All parts work together • Structures are stable patterns of social behavior: invisible forces control our behavior (i.e. age, gender and class) • Institutions are ‘subsystems’ of enduring patterns of social relationships: invisible yet shape our lives and contribute to society (i.e. family, education, religion, politics and government) What do they value? • Equilibrium • Balance and harmony • Structures and institutions working towards building society • They do not value change • The normal state of the system is equilibrium • Changes in on structure can provoke changes in others, change is disruptive • There is a widespread consensus of societal values Manifest Functions vs. Latent Functions: • Manifest functions: open, stated, conscious functions of institutions; these involve intended, recognized consequences of an aspect within society • Latent functions: unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of institutions Eufunctions vs. Dysfunctions: • Eufunctions: a positive benefit for society maintaining equilibrium • Dysfunctions: elements or processes within society that may actually disrupt the social systems or reduce its stability Critique: • To broad, only looks at society • Ignores inequalities of social class, race and gender • Stability at the expense of conflict • Assumes natural order Emile Durkheim: • Society  social system • We have certain basic needs in order to survive • Social structures and social institutions fulfill our needs • Predominance of society over the individual • Anomie: normlessness • Evolving societies  change from mechanical solidarity or organic solidarity, the key to change is an expanding division labor • Pre-industrial societies have simple division of labor based on “mechanical solidarity” (tradition) • Modern societies have complex division of labor based on “organic solidarity” (functional interdependence) Suicide: • An indication of social problems • Suicide varies by gender, race, class, marital status, religion etc. • 27 club: death before turning 28 due to drugs and alcohol, these people tend to feel completely alone and isolated with no normality or proper relationships • Who is more likely to commit suicide? Males • Which religion is more likely to commit suicide? Protestants • The stronger religious sense of community, the less likely you are to commit suicide. Protestant is all about the individual relationship with God, feeling a sense of loneliness and a lack of integration leads to suicide Conflict Theory: • A macro-oriented program • Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change • Highlights division based on inequality • Society is composed of groups with different access to wealth, power and prestige • Investigates how class, gender and age are linked to social inequalities • Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority • Dominant groups vs. minority groups • Incompatible interests Capitalism and Alienation • Capitalism alienates workers in four specific ways: 1) From the act of working 2) From the products of work 3) From other workers 4) From human potential • Do not gain benefits from the produce developed • Other workers become your competitors • Your work does not fulfill you Karl Marx • “History of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle” • In a capitalist society argues how open conflict is • See the dissolution of ties and pursuits for profit  only goal is to maximize profit, exploit workers and keep wages low • Economic processes: modes of production determine all processes and social change • Ownership over mean of production is the basis for other forms of inequality • Class: a social category based on ownership and control over means of production • Two Classes: 1) Bourgeoisie  owners of capital dominate 2) Proletariat  workers that sell labor • Classes have different interests – leads to class conflict based on class consciousness • Revolution: eliminates social inequalities • Social institutions: society’s subsystems, organized to meet basic human needs • False consciousness: explanations of social problems grounded in an individual’s, not society’s shortcomings  a misunderstanding that we are all in this together, responsible for your own success • An economic system is what Marx refers to as the base of every society • All other institutions derive from the type of economic system in place Symbolic Interactionism: • Looks at the biography and works with the individual • How we experience the world • Micro-oriented level • Larger symbol system- language, the way we interact and the way we view the world • Shared reality  face-to-face every day interactions • Always reading ques for what is appropriate behavior • 85% of communication is non-verbal • W.I. Thomas: we define people based on our own thoughts. “What we define as real, is real in its consequences” Max Weber: • German Sociologist • Economic success must demonstrate God’s strength • Overtime protestant ethic transformed into work ethic- working hard was a sign of success from God • “Verstehen”- must engage in this in order to understand society • No single factor determines society or the individual • Social conflict originates in values, statuses, ideas and not in economic interests, only • Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism (1904) • Ruling classes use beliefs to legitimate their position, so that other classes will cooperate in their own subordination • Rationalization of Society  change from tradition to rationality Feminism: • The study of women’s lives • Macro: constraints and forms of resistance in women’s lives • Micro: reproduction of gender through language and emotion management • Equity is the key to organization in society • How are women limited compared to men and vice versa • Sometimes aligned with conflict theory in regards to how they view the work Types of Feminism: • Maternal Feminism: o Early 19 century o Moral crusaders- improve society o Temperance movement o Women’s suffrage • Liberal Feminism: o Voting in 1918 o Early 60’s o Women gain equality via access to education and jobs o Kick started with the book the Feminine Mystique • Radical Feminism: o 70’s and 80’s o Patriarchy- universal cause of women’s oppression o Women- organize separately from men to protect their interests o Want to transform rather than working from within • Socialist Feminism: o Gender inequalities based on economic factors: influenced by class inequalities o Marx economic issues* o Women- organize with men of the same class to solve problems of gender inequality Common Characteristics of Feminism: • Gender inequalities are not biologically determined but socially determined • Patriarchy present in nearly all societies • Transnational feminism • How women are controlled is culturally specific Chapter 1 Key Terms Key-Term Description Conflict Theory The sociological model that portrays society as marked by competition and/or exploitation. Its three major concepts are power, disharmony and revolution. Dysfunctions The occasional minor, temporary disruption in social life, as defined by functionalists. Equilibrium Envisioned by functionalist sociologists as the normal state of society; marked by interdependence of parts and by harmony and consensus. Functionalism A) Applied to culture, the theoretical perspective that explains cultural elements by showing how they contribute to societal stability. B) The sociological model that portrays society as harmonious and as based on consensus. Its three major concepts are function, equilibrium and development. Learning Theory The micro sociological argument that individuals act and interact based on their past history of associations, rewards and punishments, and observations of and instructions from others. Rational Choice Theory The idea that individuals make choises based on careful cost-benefit considerations, with the intention of maximizing benefits while minimizing costs. Social Facts Social sources or causes of behavior; used by sociologists to explain rates of behavior in groups as opposed to individual behavior. Symbolic Interactionism The micro sociological perspective that assumes that individuals act and interact on the based of symbolically encoded information. Chapter 2 Research Methods Investigative Methods: • Cognitive Dissidence: there is no turning back despite the struggle • Agentic Shift: authority figures who we obey  absolve yourself of responsibility, give it to someone else Milgram Study: • 1950’s researcher • Wanted to research the dark side of humanity • His parent’s were holocaust survivors, interested in the Nazi psych • Studied with electric shocks  if someone got something wrong they get shocked • Explores the concept of power • Teacher  the real subject, pushes the switch • Over 50% were willing to get up to 450 volts just because a guy in a white coat told them to even after they were zapped to see the feeling • In the room with a learner  less compliance Prank or Crime? • February 2009- a prank call to KFC in Manchester, N.J. was made during a lunch time rush • Corporate headquarters: urgent called that there was a toxic chemical in the building and everyone needed to strip and pee on each other in order to neutralize • Why do people buy into this? Research Ethics • Code of Conduct • Respect subject’s right to privacy and dignity • Maintain objectivity and integrity in research • Project subjects from personal harm • Preserve confidentiality • Seek informed confidentiality • Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance • Disclose all sources of financial support • Demonstrate cultural sensitivity The Basics: • Sociological investigation starts with two simple requirements 1) Use the sociological perspective 2) Be curious and ask questions • Empirical evidence- observing with the senses • Positivism- applying the sciences to a human being • How do we find the answers to the questions and why? Sociological methodology • 5 ways of knowing the world: 1. Personal- participation 2. Tradition- building a belief 3. Authority- expert tells something that is true 4. Religion- accepting truth based on holy texts 5. Science- control, systematic belief What is the Scientific Method? • Defining the problem o State as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate o Operating definition- explanation of abstract concepts specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept • Review the Literature o Look at past studies o Want to do something unique o Refine the problem, look at scholarly studies relevant to the subject • Formulating the hypothesis o A “best guess” about what relationship we are looking to find o Variable- measurable trait subject to change under different conditions o Types of variables:  Independent  Dependent o Changes from time, culture to person o Independent influences the dependent • Casual logic- involves the relationships between a variable and a particular consequence  cause and effect, the independent variable always comes before the dependent • Correlation- a relationship by which two or more variables change together (but you are not clear which causes it)  the cause and effect is unclear • Spurious correlation- an apparent, though false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variable  unaware of which variable is causing a relationship between both variables o The association  the July effect, there seems to be a 8-34% increase of deaths in the month of July • Collecting and Analyzing Date o Sample: selection from a larger population that is statistical typical of that population o Random sample: when ever member of an entire population has the same change as being selected equal and fair chance o What or who? What population will be observed in question? What is your area? Sample or random sample? o Research Issue: Sampling a Population:  Random sample- equal chance to be chosen  Is the same sample generalizable  A researcher surveys young adults in a drug rehabilitation program to find out about the frequency of drug use among American urban adolescents. She determines that 100% of the young adults in the sample have used drugs.  This does not portray urban adolescents, not even comparing her sample to her survey • Collecting and analyzing date o Ensure validity and reliability o Validity- degree to which a measure truly reflects the phenomenon being studied o Reliability- extent to which a measure provides consistent results o A procedure must yield the same results if it is re-tested • Developing a conclusion o Supporting the hypothesis o Sociological studies do not al o Always generate data that supports your original hypothesis o You never prove a hypothesis, you support or disapprove o Why? Because someone can redo your survey and disapprove or contradict what you are trying to prove Major Research Designs: • Surveys: quantitative Research o Interviews- face-to-face or telephone questioning  High response rate  Probes beyond the questionnaire o Questionnaires- printed or written form to obtain information from responded  It is inexpensive  Often the best way for large samples  Problem: easy to lie, think and say what you feel people may want to hear as a response  inaccurate • Field Research: qualitative research o Opinion/research is subjective o Relying on what is seen in the field and naturalistic settings o Focusing on small groups and communities o Observation:  Ethnography- efforts to describe entire social settings through extended systematic observation  Joins the group for a period of time  Describes the permutations and relationships  Tries to understand the person, observe the behavior and engage in their behavior • In-depth interviews o Uncover layers of meaning in participants responses o Semi-structured:  Specific questions but flexible enough to enable participants to direct their responses o Unstructured:  Knows what they are interested in but open-ended and not confined to a core set of questions • Experiments o Artificially created situations allowing manipulation of variables  Experimental Group: exposed to independent variable  Control Group: not exposed to the independent variable  Hawthorne Effect: reactivity of human beings to being studied. Tends to change behavior because they are being studied o Establishes a cause and effect relationship o What is the independent and dependent variable o Human behavior is complex, therefore we cannot predict it • Experimental design- Porn example o Random Assignment  Experimental Group  X1 O1 X2 OR Control Group  X3 X4 o Calculate the effects of O1:O1 = (X2-X1)-(X4-X3)  measures level of aggression in both groups then calculates the affects of the porn o Level of aggression of X’s is dependent on the variable and exposure to pornographic material (O) is IV  gives the impact of the aggression level o Pornography- the independent variable o Only exposes the experimental group, not the control group to the porn o Can you control all variables? Are you reacting the same way in all the labs as you would at home? o Random sample of the experimental control group, however, we don’t know if the actual population as a while was randomly sampled, therefore, validity is sampled o No you cannot generalize past the men in this group • Use of existing sources o Secondary analysis- research techniques that make use or previously collected and publicly accessible information and data o Content analysis- systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale • Limitations of Sociology: o Social patterns constantly change o Life in a ‘test tube’- value free objectivity Chapter 2 Key Terms Key Terms Description Axiomatic Logic The making of connecting links between related statements for deriving hypothesis. Cluster Sampling A series of random samples taken in units by decreasing size, such as census tracts, then streets, then houses, then residents. Content Analysis A method of analysis that extracts themes from communications including, letters, books and newspapers. Control Group The group of subjects in an experiment that is not exposed to the independent variable, as opposed to the experimental group, which is. Control Variables Variables included in a model of behavior that are neither independent nor dependent variables. They are controlled or held constant to check on apparent relationships between independent and dependent variables. Correlation Not to be confused with cause, it is changes in one variable that coincide with changes in another variable. Cross-sectional The type of research that takes place at one point in time as opposed to Research longitudinal research, which can detect change and demonstrate cause because it takes place over a period of time. Deductive Logic The derivations of a specific statement from a set of more general statements. Dependent The effect in a casual statement, as opposed to the independent variable Variable which is the cause Experimental The group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the independent Group variable, as opposed to the control group, which isn’t. External Validity The ability to generalize research results beyond the artificial laboratory experimental situation to the real world. Grounded Theory Explanations that arise from the data collected and that are thus grounded in reality rather than in deductive logic Hypothesis A statement of a presumed relationship between two or more variables Independent The cause in a casual statement, as opposed to the dependent variable, Variable which is the effect. Inductive Logic The construction of a generalization from a set of specific statements. Longitudinal Research done over time, often by participant observers. Research Operational Description of the actual procedures used to measure a theoretical concept. Definition Participant A research strategy whereby a researcher becomes a member of a group to Observation study it  ethnography. Positivism The application of natural science research methods to social science. Praxis Marx’s concept that research should not be pure, conducted just for knowledge’s sake, but applied undertaken to improve society. Primary vs. The former are records produced by contemporaries of an event; the latter Secondary are interpretations of primary sources made by other immediately present at Resources the event. Quota Sample A selection of people that matches that sample to the population on the basis of certain selected characteristics. Random Sample A sample in which every member of the population is eligible for inclusion and individuals are selected by chance. Reliability The degree to which repeated measurements of the same variable, using the same or equivalent instruments, are equal. Replication Repeating a research project in attempt to verify earlier findings. Secondary The examination by researchers of someone else’s data. Analysis Spurious The appearance that two variables are in a casual relationship, when in fact Relationship each is in an effect of a common third variable. Theory A set of interrelated statements of propositions about a particular subject manner. Triangulation The application of several research methods to the same topic in the hope that the weaknesses of any one method may be compensated for by the strengths of the others. Validity The degree to which a measure actually measures what it claims to. Variable A characteristic, such as income or religion, that takes on different values among different individuals or groups. Verstehen The understanding of behavior as opposed to the predicting of behavior. Chapter 3 Culture Proxemics: • Edward T. Hall • Culture- primary strategy for survival • Everything is culturally specific in relation to time and space- culture + communication and time and space + silence • How do we define space and time? • Time is a valuable commodity while space is a territorial land claim Distances: • Intimate distance: 0-1 feet o All about touching • Personal distance: 1-4 feet o Verbal and vision o Physical communication intimates inhabit in the social realm • Social distance: 4-12 o Operating a business o Eye contact • Public distance: 12+ feet o Formal distance o Vision is reduced • How close are you willing to get to a stranger? o Break up of class statistics- majority said 12-18 inches o 58% were international while 50% were Canadian o 53% were female while 43% were male • Culture permeates our lives, women feel more secure than men do in Canada according to these statistics What is Culture? • Cultures vary, but they all have five common components 1. Symbols  Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture 2. Language  A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another  Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis- human languages determine the structure of the real world as perceived by human beings 3. Values  Abstract idea or generally accepted standards of behavior  Ideal vs. real values 4. Beliefs  Specific statements that people hold to be true or false 5. Norms  Defining principles by which a society comes to govern itself  Differs from value- more precise rules  Prescriptive norms- provides guidance on what is unacceptable behavior, focuses on what people cannot do in society  Proscriptive norms- inform individuals of what they should do in society, designed to influence individuals to voluntarily engage in productive behavior Chapter Terms: Androcentrism: centered around male point of view that reinforces male privileges within society, leads us to choose the male experience over the female experiences for study Cultural Element: products, ideas and symbolic meaning  values, norms and roles Cultural Integration: many of the elements that compromise a given culture are interrelated. Therefore, a change in one element could produce unintended changes in other elements. (ie the Yir Yoront in Australia were introduced to axes with steel heads – they previously used axes with stone heads- and they ceased to exist as cohesive social units several years later. They would place power of the stone axes in the hands of the elders and by having steel headed axes given to them there was no authoritative figures which then lead to it being difficult for cooperation.) Cultural Universals: any element of culture that seems to be found in every culture Culture: sum of the total of cultural elements associated with a certain group Ethnocentrism: the tendency to see things from the point of view of the observer’s culture rather than that of the observed, in an extreme sense it leads the investigators to view one society as inferior to another Eurocentrism: shaped by values and experiences of the white, middle class in Western industrialized societies Folkways: norms that do not evoke several moral condemnation when violated Infantilization: a form of bias that occurs when investigators systematically associate people from other cultures with child-like traits Institution: things that set norms and values such as, economy, family, religion and politics Mores: norms whose violation does provoke strong moral condemnation Norms: relatively precise rules specifying which behaviors are permitted and prohibited for group members Popular Culture: refers to those cultural objects and beliefs that are widely distributed across all social classes in society like books and horror films Role: cluster of behavioral expectations associated with a particular social position within a group of society Role Conflict: situations in which behavioral expectations associated with one role are inconsistent with another Society: a large group of people who share a common culture, think of themselves as an inherently set of historical traditions, interact with other group members and see themselves as being associated with a particular geographic area Sub Culture: group of people within a single society who possess, in addition to the cultural element they share with other members of their society, certain distinctive cultural elements that set them apart Urban Legends: stories with characteristics that are passed along orally, believed by the people that pass them on, set in recent past and associated with some nearby geographical location and the stories are always false Values: shared, relatively general beliefs that define what is desirable and what is undesirable Values and Norms: • In regards to values there is no one-to-one relationship, completely between a particular value and behavior within a group of individuals • Atkinson 2004 study  even though tattoos are traditionally associated with deviant groups, why has it become a growing renaissance? o For most individuals the tattoo was a way of expressing their own cultural values that is shared with a common society at large o For some people a tattoo was a way of “improving” their bodies, while for others it was to express their individuality or for some women sexual empowerment • Norms, unlike values are tightly linked to particular behaviors • Most people tend to associate norms with law however, we tend to overlook daily norms that are precisely important • Hall 1981  looked at personal space forms and how they vary • According to his study people should not speak to people at a distance of less than 30cm with the exception of relationships that are emotional or sexual o If individuals go any closer tend to feel as though they are in our face o In regards to public exchanges, 120 cm is the distance people prefer, discomfort increase as distance decreases o Bus situation  if we are alone on a bus and someone comes to sit next to us tend to feel uncomfortable and as though our space has been violated o People should distribute themselves as evenly as the space permits • Folkways vs. Mores  does not lie in the content of the rule rather the reaction produced by the violation Social Roles: • A role is behavioral expectations associated with a social position in society • Can attain more than one role (I.E. friend, sister, teacher) • More than one role leads to role conflict. A common example is a parent  taking care of children interferes with occupational roles • Roles we take for granted in our own culture may not exist in another culture  the cluster of responsibilities a role takes on varies from culture to culture • Religious groups are seen as a subculture within Canada which has a culture itself • Popular culture is not developed until mass media is Aspects of Culture: Three observations: 1. Culture exhibits enormous variation with regard to their values, norms and roles 2. Few cultural elements are common to all known societies 3. The elements of culture in a given society are often interrelated • Margaret Mead  Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies: o Focused on gender roles in New Guinea o Arapesh  both men and women were cooperative, mild-mannered, gentle and concerned with helping the young. Both female and males embodied the traits of Western societies associated with females o Mundugumor  both men and women were extremely hostile and embodied the traits of a stereotypical male in Western society including being sexually aggressive, jealous and argumentative o Tchambuli  the roles of the men and women seemed to be reversed in regards to how we generalize women in Western society. Men were more concerned with arts and weren’t hostile, while the women were concerned with economic activities. • What may be viewed as socially ‘deviant’ in one society differs amongst others Is Globalization Reducing Cultural Variation: • Within the cultural realm globalization has become a major concern • “McDonaldization of Society”  suggest that behavior is shaped by the organizations with which people interact than by their own values Canadians and Americans: Are We the Same or Different? • Lipset argued: American culture traditions have a larger emphasis on rebellion against authority, individualism and egalitarianism; while Canadians emphasized respect for authority, collectivism and elitism. This led Lipset to believe Americans are more accustomed to change while Canadians are more conservative - This argument explained why Canadians had a lower crime rate, while Canadians are more receptive to social welfare policies and why Canadian writers emphasize on survival while Americans on rebellion - This stems from the notion that Americans went through a revolution while Canada didn’t When Cultures Collide: Studying the First Nations Communities: • Culture also varies in respect to the “way we think about the world” • An example of this is proved with the First nations: o Western museums misused their products when showcasing them o The western people didn’t realize that some objects required intimate rituals and could not be touched by women Theories in Culture: Functionalism: • What accounts for a cultural difference? • Functionalism in culture is the given norm or value or cultural practice explained by showing the overall stability and survival of society in which it is found. • Examples: 1. Bronislaw Malinowski found that the Trobianders used magic to make everyday dangerous and uncertain tasks seemed somewhat controlled. This ultimately, contributes to the overall stability of society: magic reduces any anxiety that is produced by dangers and uncertainties such as weather, with ocean fishing. 2. Kingsley Davis stated that sexual jealousy amongst males leads to stability within society. He states that the fact that the community encourages people to be jealous whenever their sexual rights have been violated (I.E adultery) will deter individuals from feeling the desire to violate those rights. Conflict Theory: • “Ideology” • Conflict theorists use ideologies to legitimize existing inequalities of wealth and power, or to prevent the less powerful from seeing the true cause of inequalities (this can also be applied to religion). • This essentially forces us to challenge the many attitudes and beliefs that would otherwise not be examined by individuals. • Cultural Materialism: o It is a third perspective used to study and explain culture. It de-emphasizes ideas and ideology as determinants of cultures, and instead sees cultures as adaptions to the needs forced upon social groups by their specific physical environments. o Example:  Western nations rely upon mechanization such as tractors for motive power in agriculture. Countries like India rely on oxen for motive power and dung for fertilizer (mostly due to the insufficient capital to purchase equipment, which would result in displacement of people from country to city where it’s already overcrowded.) Tractors are only more cost efficient where there are larger farms; most farms in India are small. Therefore, Indian agriculture relies on the cow. Feminism: • Focuses on the finding: 1. Cause of female subordination throughout the world 2. Importing into the study of culture a greater emphasis on women and the female experience • It involves taking into account both the men AND women’s accounts. Emphasis on the female experience in culture and the affect on human prehistory. Chapter 4 Socialization What is Socialization? • No matter how unique we all are, we all develop through an ongoing process of interactions • This is further exhibited through the picture I the first slide • You can see all these unique and different faces, yet they all are interacting with each other and being socialized Socialization: • Culture- biography • Milieu- history • To what extent are you in the culture of is the culture in you? • Double Involvement- Giddens o Interaction, structuraction o We are both production of society (agents of socialization) and producers of society o We are balanced against the needs of a social structure o Socialization links us to society and each generation transmits a set of beliefs, cultures, norms and values • Berger- a process by which people learn to be members of society o Starts with epigensis- DNA (our genetic ground plan), without socialization it cannot be recognized  In human development theory (Erikson) the person in likened to a flower, which has genetically present stages of growth, the outcome of which depends on how well, or poorly, the environment nurtures it during the stage. o It is a lifelong process- most intensive in childhood o It is an interactive process o Contents of socialization differ across cultures- self concept eternalizes social expectations of society Primary Socialization: • Occurs from both through adolescence- product of group life • Family is the most important agent • It is both intention and unintentional • Largely imposed, although some reciprocity in parent-child interactions • Linguistic + group meaning  what is expected? Attachment: • Theorist- Bowley • Precursor for successful socialization • Development of interpersonal/cognitive skills and sense of self • Attachment styles: o Secure  The most successful attachment style  Primary care giver  Always there  Emotional security  Guidelines/limitations are set  Security and safety- a sense of trust is established o Avoidant  Always negative  Never there for the child  Atonomous o Anxious  You never know what to expect, it is the worst type of interaction  Goes between both styles of attachment and avoudant  Children with anxious attachment learn to cope, not about the self- creates a physical interaction  You see it in kids who were institutionalized or put in an alienated environment  Institutionalized rocking- need to be held, so mentally rock back and forth to feel as though a mother is • Attachment is dependent on how you will interact with personal intimate relations • You will never be aware unless you make yourself aware Secondary Socialization: • Adolescent and adult socialization • Occurs throughout the life cycle- anticipate and adjust to new experiences • Taking on different roles • Reciprocal process • Based on previous experience • Different from primary- more choice and more limits • Adolescent socialization: o Storm and Stress- Hall  A unique phenomenon set up due to 3 discontinuities: set children up  Everyone is always all over you o 3 sets of discontinuities- Benedict- Children are characterized by  Non-responsible roles: not ready for independence, they are then all of a sudden thrown a curve ball claiming they need to be responsible and take care of themselves  Submission to authority: all of a sudden you need to become a critical thinker and make good decision when usually you were expected and told what to do  Shielded from sexuality: cannot explore your own sexuality and are expected to not know your own body, then all of a sudden you are expected to know exactly what to do-more prevalent in girls then boys on the basis that it is socially acceptable for boys to masturbate and girls not o Disjunctive = storm and stress • Types of Secondary Socialization: o Anticipatory socialization (adult)- self socialization  Arnett**  Merton: learning over behaviors and values found in statuses and groups which one expect to play in the future o Re-socialization  “Institutionalized”, operates 24/ and is not voluntary (jails, psych facilities, first nations schools etc)  Stripping and mortifying  strips you of yourself physically and mentally (degradation)  All about replacing inadequate and defective roles in order to ‘fix you’ • Total Institutions: o Fails to provide resources within society therefore they aren’t deemed as truly successful o They are isolated from social norms and then you are expected to go back into society o It is impossible to undo primary socialization, put them back into an unsupportive environment and believe they will change Key Agents of Socialization: • Family- primary • Peers, school media- secondary • Work and religion- last • Peer Groups: o Importance- development of a frame of reference not based on adult authority o It assumes great influence in adolescence- when emotional, social and economic independence begin to develop o Peer-group influence is tempered by parental influence, as parents control scarce and valued resources o You confirm to your own group norms-most important part of adolescent development o It lets you escape from the control of your parents • School: o Reinforcement of self-concept and ‘academic self images’ developed o Provision of a social life o Filtering of occupational choices o Promotes values and norms within a society- i.e. middle class children learn to value academic achievement o Teaches about:  Social hierarchies  Rules, rights and responsibilities  The richer have a hidden curriculum- unspoken norms transmitting by schooling such as, competition, individualism, obedience etc.  Affects social reproduction • Media: o Transmits values, behaviors and definitions of social reality- integration function o Reflections social relations, socializes an audience o Feminist critique- contributes to gender stereotyping o Media and violence  Boys tend to imitate violence that they see  Defining social reality as violent  Mc. Williams- notel o Changes in media uses  Increasingly a solitary, not social activity  Digital divide- class/educational differences in digital media use, both between and within societies  New digital divide- same losing side! • Work Place: o Learning to behave appropriately within occupational settings is a fundamental aspect of human socialization o Socialization in the workplace involves four phases  Career choice  Anticipatory socialization  Conditioning  Continuous commitment Socialization Outcomes: • Socialization reproduces gender, race and class distinctions • Reproduction of gender- nature vs. nurture debate o Studies of infants and young children- few behaviors that consistently differentiate males and females o There is no difference in motor ability o Mothers expect difference  Mechanisms of gender socialization:  Parental reaction to perceived innate differences  Different socialization  Gender toys- effect of mother’s attitudes on D.O.L  Imitation of gendered behavior in child’s social environment  Media source of gender stereotypes • Social reproduction of race o Child rearing in the ethnic-racial minority families: emphasizes racial price, higher self esteem and greater group knowledge o One fifth of the racial minority children have experienced racial discrimination and parents often adopt promotion of mistrust- as a child rearing strategy o Racial socialization of mixed children  Importance of exposure to both cultures  Discrimination • Social reproduction of class: o Melvin Kohn* o Child rearing varies by class o Differences in occupational experiences (supervision, routinization and complexity of work) o Low Tier Workers  Conformity, orderliness and behavioral consequences in children- they are disciplined to become like their parents  Low tier workers are heavily supervised, very un-complex and do it over and over again o High Tier Workers  More permissive, emphasis on self-reliance and behavioral intentions  Differently organized, often their own supervisors, independent, variety/component of involvement o 80% of work is service work- LOW TIER o What theoretical paradigm would like the change- structural functionalism o Reproduction of class- social mobility o More open society- opportunity to move up on the latter of class Theories: Functionalism: • Process of internalizing social norms and behavioral expectations • Accomplishment of socialization- conformity leading to social integration  seeks stability Conflict: • It appears you may get ahead but you cant • Socialized by class- functions to defend power relations within society • Maintain the status quo- open society • We blame the victim when they don’t succeed, not society Mead: the self consists of: • The I (spontaneous, creative unique self) • The me (the socially defined self, internalized norms and values) • Linked self concepts to role playing • The me is based on increasing social reactions • Isolation- no development  in order to develop you must engage in role playing • Role-Taking o Development of ‘self’ o 3 stages- preparatory, play, game o Preparatory (3 years)- mimics behavior without understanding, no knowledge o Play (3-5 years)- takes role of ‘significant others’, develops an understanding of language and can see yourself in relation to others o Game (7-8 years)- learning to take the role of several others at once, understanding our position and others’ position in relation to you  Becoming socialized in moving from the ‘I’ to the ‘Me’  Generalized other- a person internalizes general social expectations by imagining how any number of others will act and react Social Psychological Perspective: • Goffman- presentation of the self • Impression management- slanted presentation of yourself • Face work- ‘alterity’, need to maintain a proper image • We all engage in impression management to satisfy specific audiences at a specific time Feminism: • Socialization into masculine and feminine gender roles takes place in family, among peers, in school, in the work place and through mass media Symbolic Interactionism: • People actively participate in their own socialization • Accomplishment of socialization: a sense of self • Zucher- “I Am” o Physical o Active o Social o Psychological • Behavioral theories- learning through identification and reinforcement o i.e. Bandura on children’s imitation of violence o Is violence innate or is it a product of what you learn and experience? o Assistant took the doll, covered it, hit it then threw it  kids no matter the gender, imitated it, we learn to confirm, deviate and become violent • Cooley- ‘Looking-glass self’ o Perception of our appearance to other people, perception of his judgment of that appearance, and some sort of self feeling, such as pride or mortification o Sense of self derives based on their perception of what they think everyone else thinks of them- looking glass o Could be both wrong or right o Imagine how you appear to others and how they judge you o Who is the other? Adults/parents, over time set into action a self fulfilling prophecy for a kid • Psychological Theories of Socialization: o Piaget o Cognitive theory of development  Stages humans progress through as the self develop  Sensorimotor  Preoperational  Concrete operational  Formal operational • Freud: o Elements of personality: o The ID- basic instincts o The super ego- internalized values o The ego- also developed socially, mediates between the id and the super ego IMPORTANT TERMS NOT MENTIONED FOR SOCIALIZATION: Cofigurative culture- those in which social change brought by technological advancement, economic transformation, immigrations, was and so forth makes the intergenerational linkage tenuous, as opposed to post-figurative and pre-figurative cultures Defective socialization- socialization attempts that have unintended outcomes or consequences Disjunctive socialization- socialization processes that lack continuity between socialization contexts, making it difficult for people to make transitions of to adjust to new contexts Inadequate socialization- incomplete socialization, occurring when a person is not exposed to all experiences necessary to function in certain roles Normative structure- organized systems of norms that give people direction and meaning to their lives Post-figurative culture- those in which the relations between parents and offspring are governed by traditional norms beyond questioning of either parents of child, as opposed to cofigurative and post-figurative culture Pre-figurative culture- those in which the social change is so great that parental life experiences are dated and thus parental guidance is not well regarded by children, as opposed to post-figurative and cofigurative cultures Self-socialization- the recognition of one’s own limitations and restraints in order to create ways to live among others Sociology Tutorial Notes Part 1- The Sociological Imagination Chapters 1 and 2 Chapter 1- what should students understand from sociology? • The ‘social’ part of sociology or learning to think sociologically o Students must understand the importance of getting beyond the individual when trying to understand and explain the social world o Society if very real and does matter o Macro-level factors and individuals are interconnected o Sociological paradigm-human behaviors are impacted by societal structures o Mill- there is a relationship between biography and social structures  linking the relationship between agency and structures, micro and macro levels o Understanding the sociological lens/sociological imagination • The scientific nature of sociology o Self-conscious attention to methods o Sociology as an empirical object has properties o What does it mean to make a sociological argument? o Sociology isn’t merely a bundle of different opinions, rather a systematic nature of data collection and analysis • Complex and critical thinking o What are the important questions to ask? o Understanding there are multiple perspectives- more than one story • The centrality of inequality o Social stratification o What is the source of social inequality? o Opportunities are enhanced or constrained by previous life experiences Chapter 2- the sociological imagination: • Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can’t be understood without understanding both • The sociological imagination enables its possessor to understand the large historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and the external career of a variety of individuals • Every individual lives, from one generation to the next, in some society; that he lives in biography and that he lives it out within some historical sequence • Imagination is the capacity to shift from one perspective to another- from the political to the psychological, from the examination of one family to comparative assessment etc. • The sociological imagination is the most fruitful form of self-consciousness • An individual acquires a new way of thinking, an experience of trans-valuation of values in the world, by reflection and sensibility, one realizes the cultural meaning of the social sciences • The sociological imagination works between the personal troubles of the milieu and the issues of social structure • Troubles occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others • Issues have to do with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and range of their inner life Part 2- Sociological Inquiry: Methods Chapter 4 Chapter 4- the study design for a survey for American sexual behavior: • 1988- the only comprehensive American study of sexuality based on a large cross section of the population • Research design is never just a theoretical exercise • It is a set of practical solutions to a multitude of problems and considerations that are chosen under the constraints of limited resources of money, time and prior knowledge • Sample Design: o Most straightforward element of methodology o Profitability sampling- highly developed practical application of statistical theory to the problem of selecting a sample  Avoids the problem of bias introduced by the researcher or by self selection  Allows one to quantify the variability in the estimates derived from the sample • Sample Size: o The precision is usually measured in terms of the amount of sampling error accruing to the statistics calculated from the sample o +/- 2 or 3% of the population- the larger the sample, the smaller the likely error in estimates o Samples all produces slightly different estimates o Determining how large a sample size should be depends on how precise the estimates must be o The larger the sample size, the tighter the distribution estimates will be • Mode of Administration: o The most fundamental aspect is concerned with how the interview itself would be conducted Part 3- Ethics in Research Chapter 5 Chapter 5- ethical issues in disaster research: lessons from Hurricane Katrina: • Sought to understand how schools react to the influx of children fleeing the disaster, most of whom had lost nearly al of their positions and whose families were stressed nearly to limits • Outlines the ethical challenges and how one can overcome them • Informed consent with disaster victims: o Individuals must decide what will/will not happen to them o Can withdraw from the study at anytime with no repercussions o Consent must be voluntary and no coerced o Some also believe disaster victims tend to be in a vulnerable position- could be easily manipulated o Sought permission through signed forms • Subject confidentiality: o Even more important in a disaster survey due to the vulnerable of the survivors o Schools do not need consent to disclose ‘directory’ information, unless the parents or students had requested not to be disclosed o Had to find access to the relocated children through different schools and directories • Subject Compensation: o Paying subjects for their participation in the research o It could raise ethical concerns on the basis that it may be perceived as coercive- it could lead to the potentiality of subjects misrepresenting themselves in order to be considered for the research project o Montary payments may be more attractive to individuals with low socioeconomic status- resulting in disproportionate research burdens on the population and skewing the subject pool • Challenges of working with stressed institutions: o Without active participation of the schools and school districts- research would have been impossible o To simplify the process, district staff helped to identify the schools with the largest portion of Katrina students • Challenges of meeting the requirements of good social science: o Researchers have several obligations and requirements to meet o Primary role is to collect data- neither judges or therapists o In the project they made contact with local social services agencies and were prepared to make referrals if asked Part 4- Culture Chapters 8 and 9 Chapter 8- body ritual among the Nacirema: 1. Ethnocentrism- bias point of view, applying your own views of culture onto another when observing a culture 2. Eurocentrism- viewing the world from a western perspective 3. Nacirema- America spelt backward 4. Looking at a Eurocentric perspective through a ethnocentric perspective 5. Poking fun at the saturation of anthropologists 6. Don’t be so quick to judge 7. Your own paradigm vs. others Chapter 9- cultural aspects of disability: 8. Disabilities- a minority group by virtue of restricted access to education, full employment and other resources as people with disabilities are not simply disabled- they are disabled within a specific culture that determines the meaning of their experiences 9. Disadvantages of disabilities are based on cultural relativism- relevant culture context 10. Disabilities are inherited, congenital or acquired 11. Source of variation- subcultures an individual is socialized within 12. The disability does not make the individual Sociology 1020 Midterm Review #2 Textbook Notes Chapter 7 Gender Relations • This chapter begins with an examination of biology (nature) and culture (nurture) with regards to gender. • The chapter begins with an examination of biology (nature) and culture (nurture) with regards to gender. How different sexes react to different situations (like the environment, politics, health and longevity etc). • Achieved status - A status that you work to achieve, gain, not something natural. It takes individual effort or accomplishment. It is a place in a status hierarchy. (With gender, how to act, what box to be placed in, i.e. Men are tough, macho, have no emotion and aggressive; Women, are soft, caring, emotional and passive) • Ascribed status - A status that is inherited or assigned. It can be natural. (Children are born and they are divided into sex categories Boys with male genitalia and girls with female genitalia) • Gender roles are socially created and then learned; people are not born with them. • A major debate is about the differences in mathematical ability. Many say that the difference is due to gender. Female students are over represented in humanities and social sciences while men dominate the mathematical, technological and scientific fields. • Boys have a harder time with literacy. Proposals include: segregated classrooms, and different teaching styles in hopes to reduce the gap. • Duffy, Warren and Walsh found that female math teachers pay more attention to male students and more often than not initiate the contact themselves. • Boys have an “I’ll show you approach” to problems and tend to be more successful with the negativity while girls on average follow the “self fulfilling prophecy” and are more often than not unsuccessful. • Mitra, found that although women earn significantly less money than men, possession of math skills leads to significant wage premiums across all groups of workers. Women with high math skills gain wage premiums equal to or higher than men. • Sociologist Aaron Devor formally Holly Devor - categorized as a gender blender (a women who due to physical appearance is often mistaken for a man) was interviewed in Maclean’s magazine after his sex change operation. He noted that though he misses the freedom women have in exposing their feelings, men can walk down a dark street relatively unafraid of sexual assault. His gender is masculine (by sociology terms) though his sex may still be female. Structural Functionalism: • The theoretical perspective that explains cultural elements by showing how they contribute to societal stability. This model portrays society as harmonious and as based on consensus. Three major concepts are: function, equilibrium and development. • Gender and gendered division of labour still occurs because it somehow benefits society. They maintain order and promote social stability. • Society needs to reproduce in order to survive and given women’s temporary vulnerability and reduced mobility during the later stages of pregnancy/ breast feeding women need protection and care. The debate is now how long the vulnerability lasts, if breastfeeding is necessary and if non- pregnant women can instead perform the protective role instead of men. • A problem arises when the temporary vulnerability expands to include broader gender stereotypes. The initial infant caring role can lead to pressure that states she must be permanently responsible for all child care and housework, avoid occupations that leave the home and allow her husband to act as the primary breadwinner. • This perspective implies that men are imperative for survival. They have access to the public realm of paid labour and perform instrumental tasks for survival. They are strong, aggressive and smart, rational not emotional.When man and woman work in the public sphere, his occupation is held in higher regard. • Functionalists believe families need both mother and father and that heterosexual unions are the only type possible. They overlook that single mothers often do both sides of the work and are still successful. Structural Functionalism:  The micro perspective that assumes individuals act and interact on the basis of symbolically encoded information. It’s individuals and how they affect society, not how society as a whole affects the individual. “People act for reasons not causes.” The world is socially constructed and changeable  They do not see the gendered division of labour as a natural outcome of the need to reproduce and are critical of any extensions of this position that generalize to a female dependency and male domination  Everything is negotiable: masculinity, femininity, gender roles, gender norms, gender identity (i.e. Transsexuals.) Though the norms surrounding definitions of masculinity and femininity are still very strong. Men are now allowed to be more sensitive and openly affectionate than before limits still remain (men can hug but in ways that minimize genital contact and they cannot kiss other men; Women can be execs but generally are not allowed to bring attention to the lesser competence of male colleagues  Brown and Gilligan argue that children learn gendered behaviour through a variety of processes (i.e. Imitating others like parents or siblings) also receiving rewards and or punishments (shame and name calling included)  Behaviour is affected by what is gender appropriate (clothes, amt of food ingested, safety issues, occupation and parental responsibilities) Marxist Conflict Theory:  This model portrays society as marked by competing and or exploitation. Power holds society together. Conflict is society’s natural state; revolutions and radical upheavals fuel social change and improvement. Inequality must be eradicated, not applauded. Society is viewed as composed of groups acting competitively rather than cooperatively, exploiting and being exploited rather than each fulfilling a function for the whole. Three major concepts are: power, disharmony, and revolution.  With gender, the marxist conflict theorists believe that primary emphasis should be placed upon economic forces. The economy is the driving force in society that influences religion, the law and communications. This implies that concentrating on ethnic, racial, and gender inequalities instead of social class inequities can lead to division and infighting within those groups that will delay the ultimate revolution of the workers against the ruling class.  Gender inequality is not an issues for Marx, women were seen as mothers and housewives (shared by functionalists). Engels, the co-author to Marx paid more attention to women, liking their position in the family to that of the oppressed working class in the larger society. Neither men nor women possessed the means of production. and each was like property (workers of the capitalists, wives of their husbands) Feminist Theory:  There is no single feminist theory, all different branches often disagree but all generally concur that the main force behind women’s oppression is patriarchy. This gives men the unearned privilege relative to women.  Liberal Feminism: o Gender inequalities can be stopped by giving women better opportunities (pay equity, employment equity policies, free universal daycare, and ending sexism in the education system)  Socialist Feminism: o Believe that capitalism is the real problem and though patriarchy must be eradicated capitalism comes first. In capitalism men must subordinate themselves to their employers and one way to maintain their dignity is to control others (wives, children).  Radical Feminism: o One goal: the abolition of male supremacy and two connected focuses: biological reproduction and paid labour. As long as women have full responsibility for children in the home, they cannot be equal in the workplace. They believe that alternative reproductive strategies (in vitro) must be used to eliminate men’s domination of women’s bodies. Control over one’s body is the key to ending female oppression (not to involve pills, patches, inserts, or devices that can cause long term damage to internal organs or lessen sexual pleasure) Left out textbook headings: Body image, gendered wage gap and experiencing violence* Respectively they discuss: females issues with body image and weight vs males (including objectification and media), differences in education and pay range (including the woman’s role in the public domain), and finally from spousal abuse and who is generally the recipient (including sexual harassment in the workplace, what’s acceptable what’s not) to pornography. Chapter 10 Families Overview: • Families are the social arena that most people spend the majority of their lives • As an institution of society, families affect and are affected by other social institutions • Two difficulties regarding the study of families: 1. Too many generalizations made about families based on personal limited experiences, thus making it hard to look at larger family behavior 2. Family behavior is considered private. Researchers: often barred from studying families in their natural setting Marriage and Family: • Marriage, expressive exchanges and instrumental exchanges • Marriages do not just happen; they have to be maintaining as ongoing exchanges. One partner mage provide more earnings while the other partner provides more childcare. • There are two crucial aspects to the definition of family: 1. Persons must be related in some way 2. Must customarily maintain a common residence • Relationships include heterosexual couples without children, same-sex families, couples with children and lone parent families • In this definition if individuals are related but do not live together they are kin not family. Kin live in close proximity and are socially and economically integrated with other kin but not considered family unless they share a dwelling Number of Partners in Marriage: • Monogamy, Polygamy and Group Marriage • Monogamy is the most prevalent form of marriage; 75% of the world’s societies accept polygamy • Polygyny: polygamy (one male, multiple females) involving husband sharing; in West Africa half of women aged 35-444 are in polygynous unions. Generally older more established men marry younger women • Polyandry: polygamy though more rare (one female, multiple males) involving wife sharing. Generally brothers share one wife. This prevents land that the brothers will inherit from being subdivided into small packages and leaving the male line • Group marriage is also rare, it was practiced among the Nayar in Southern India. During or before puberty each girl was given a ritual husband but the couple’s rituals to each other were mostly ceremonial nature. After marriage women could receive any of the men of the neighborhood group as sexual partners. At the birth of the child, one or more of them had to acknowledge paternity and pay for the delivery of the child. If no man came forward it was assumed that the woman had involved herself with someone of a lower caste or a Christian and was put to death. Consanguine vs. Nuclear Bonds: • Both are recognized within society • Consanguine: generally paramount in tribal societies and kinship may predominate in all spheres of life. Groups based on kin ties are economic unites for production and consumption, political units with regard to power and religious units with emphasis on ancestral worship. The relationship between spouse is not strong here, relatives are important in this sort of society- they provide economic security. • Nuclear Family: kin is considerably less important. Emphasis is on the spousal bond, thus it is important that spouses choose each other rather than accept a parentally arranged marriage. Less concern upon ancestors and kin, more concern for own children. Giving more to children so they have the best chances possible in life. Incest Taboo: • Prohibiting sex and marriage for close biological relatives is another almost uniform feature across societies • This taboo reinforces the family in 2 ways: • Restricting legitimate sexual activity to spouses prevents sexual rivalry, not breaking up the family • The requirement to marry outside the nuclear family enlarges the kinship network through alliances with other families Importance of Inheritance: • Families can be joined across generations by passing one of property • This produces social relationships that will continue in the future Family Change: • There are two transitions: • Brought about smaller families and involved a change in the economic costs and benefits of children plus new cultural environments that made it more appropriate to control family size. This placed focus more upon child quality rather than quantity of children • The end of the baby boom, end of young marriage, beginning of rise in divorces. Growth in common law unions and children from common law unions. Leveling in the divorce rates, increase in post marital cohabitation, plateau in fertility an higher proportions of births after the age of 30. • Fewer children born from all unions, high number of children not living with biological parents. Lone parent families have increased from roughly 11% to 25% • The golden age: childless couples were considered selfish; single persons were seen as deviants, working mothers were considered to be harming their children, single pregnant women were require to marry or give up the child to preserve the integrity of their family Structural Functionalism: • Changes in any one part of society affect other parts and each part of society serves some function for the whole • Family and kin groups had a larger number of functions in pre-industrial societies where they were the chief unites of reproduction and socialization of the young, as well as units of economic production/political action/religious observance • Industrialization and modernization brought structural differentiation, the family lost many of its role (in economic production, education, social security and care of the aged to none family institutions: factories, schools, medical and public health, police and commercialized leisure) • Long term changes in the family relate to societal changes, this is called de- institutionalization: fewer constraints on the family behavior Micro/Cultural Explanations: • In more rural societies individuals obtain much of their emotional gratification through religion and community. Held together by mechanical solidarity (a sense of belonging and immediate identity with the surrounding community) • In the industrial world societies are held together by organic solidarity ( a division of labor whereby individuals are dependent of each other’s specialized abilities). These societies are competitive and impersonal providing less psychological support and security for individuals • Roussel suggests that during the 1970s and 80s people became less interested in living to external norms and more interested in living up to personal standards Leaving Home: • The age to leave home began to increase in the 70s, now what is called a cluttered nest, some children even return home after leaving • Children are less likely to be living at home when parents are more religious, remarried or from certain ethnic groups • If families have separated then children generally leave or live with mothers so long as mothers have not remarried or entered a new cohabitation relationship Cohabitation/Common Law: • Common for women aged 20-29 • To some extent it substitutes for marriage • The people in these relationships do not consider themselves married, just an alternative to being single Durkheim: • Didn’t envisage a collaborative model of shared roles where partners collaborate at both earning a living and caring for a family • Complementary- roles model, double burden, collaborative or role-sharing model Lone Parent Families: • Among families with children, 25.8% were lone parents in 2006 • Most were led by a widowed parents • By 1996, that had changed from widowed to separated or divorced • There are male led lone parent families at around 16.9% in 2006 Childbearing and Children: • Can be examined in terms of both economic (instrumental) and non-economic (expressive) components • Children are costly since they are largely dependent on their parents and do not contribute to family income • Cost of a child from birth to 18 excluding childcare is $190,000 for high income families and $78,000 for lower income families • The average cost for three children is $285,000 which rises to $575,000 if one includes child care and indirect costs associated with lower labor force participation • Children are costly because parents have less time and energy for themselves, they also cause emotional and psychological stress Chapter 11 Religion Overview: • Canada was once a very religious nation. A majority of Canadians attended religious services and everyone was baptized and married in the church. Christianity exercised a profound influence on the character of the nature and Canadians in the decades following 1867 • Everyone but a tiny minority of people belonged to the Catholic church, United Church of Canada, Anglican church or Presbyterian church. The idea was to bolster middle class values, norms and goals that a majority of Canadians preferred. They extended the status quo and made Canadians want to work harder and achieve greater prosperity and social respectability. These religions played a huge role in creating the culture of concern for social welfare of all that distinguishes Canadian public life from the politics of free-enterprise individualism in the USA • The only division in the nation was between the Catholics and Protestants, however, Canada became a nation that would not significantly discriminate between most religions • Between 1940-1950 approximately 60% of Canadians attended church regularly. By the 90s, only 20% of Canadians attended Church. This occurred because many of the baby boomers decided to rebel against the establishment. As they grew up and started to get married and have children, many returned to the church as to raise their families in the religion they grew up with • 1955 a Gallup poll stated that 68% of Canadians felt that religion as a whole was becoming a greater part of Canadian society while in 1995, only 17% believe the same thing • Though many Canadians today no longer regularly attend religious services many still identify with a particular religion. Also, many Canadians say that they partake in private religious activities such as, prayer, meditation, reading sacred texts etc. • Canadians generally fall between the Americans and Western Europeans with regards to religious belief • Many sociologist believed that as societies became more modern many would no longer stress about religion, but when looking at countries like the USA and Canada, they both show a different story • Tylor, a British anthropologist suggested that religion be defined as “belief in spiritual beings, however, it is much to exclusive Structural Functionalist: • The functionalists focus on what religion does and tend to be too broad and inclusive • Yinger, an American religion sociologist said “Religion is a system of beliefs and practices by means of which a group struggles with the ultimate problems of human life” • The definition is composed from the functionalist definitions is that “Religion is a system of beliefs and practices about transcendent things, their nature and their consequences for humanity” • Measuring religiosity is near impossible because there are no constraints • Glock and Stark recommended inquiring into at least eight dimension of religious life to assess: o Experiential/supernatural o Ritualistic (participation) o Devotional (saying prayer/grace) o Belief o Knowledge o Consequential (everyday effects of religion) o Communal (associating with other members) o Particularistic (degree they think their religion is the one and only salvation) • No matter how one measures religiosity there is always the problem of self-reporting Emile Durkheim: • Religious beliefs and practices protect the moral integrity of social relations. They hold individualistic impulses at bay and create a hive like (altruistic) desire to serve the needs of the group above the needs of the individual • Religion is necessary for a society- Durkheim worried that religious would cease in the modern world and cause social solidarity • Definition of religion: “a unified system of beliefs and practices that relative to sacred things… which unite into one single moral community… all those who adhere to them” • Everything divides into two categories: sacred and profane o Sacred: that which is set apart and treated with special awe and respect. Thought to possess a tremendous and unique power that requires people to take special care in its presence o Profane: circulates; all that is not sacred, the world everyday, non religious experience • Religion is always a group activity, in traditional societies religious rites are always connected with times of group festivity • Two features of being in the presence of sacred things: 1) devotees are moved by feelings of heightened strength 2) believers feel that the strength comes from sharing power that is outside/greater than themselves and capable of acting on them with/without their consent • Collective conscience, collective effervescence Marx/Conflict Theory: • Religion serves to justify the rule of one class over another. The hierarchy is seen as divinely ordained or part of the natural order of life • Man creates God or the gods in the image of humanity. The beliefs/teachings of religion are comforting illusions designed to compensate people for the sacrifices and misery of their present lives with promises of rewards for good behavior in another life • The most famous quote on the topic of religion: “the opium of the people” • The quest for the divine is like taking a powerful drug- it dazes the mind and distorts thinking. Thus distracting people from the real source of their problems: economic and political exploitation at the hands of the dominant class • For example, the Christian religion bases its teachings on people doing whatever necessary to make sure they get into heaven to spend eternity with God. In Marx’s words: nothing matters in this world, whether you’re poor or oppressed, its okay so long as you make it to heaven • Marx also discussed the Hindu religion and how it deals with reincarnation. If a Hindu is poor in this life it is because of what was done in the preceding life. Not blamed are the dominant elites in society whose decisions affect the distribution of wealth Weber/Capitalism: • The first capitalists differed from traditional merchants because they would forgo spending the profits earned on new luxuries in favour of reinvesting the profits in their businesses. By taking on the more ascetic approach and denying themselves of material pleasures, they prospered. This approach to their vocation fueled the spirit of capitalism that emerged in the west • Capitalism may have come from the Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther’s concept of the calling: some people are made to be peasants, others lawyers, doctors, rich businessman etc. Luther argues that all callings are of equal importance • Weber believed that Luther’s doctrine contributed to the rise of capitalism • What really gave to values and behaviors (of modern capitalism) was the doctrine of predestination (John Calvin) • This stressed the omnipotence and omniscience of God, the ultimate status of believers (saved/damned): God predetermines. Individuals can do nothing to change their fate • Weber speculates that because of such a severe view of fate, many Protestants chose to find solace in convert signs of their salvation- thus why capitalism developed: work hard and you shall prosper • Classifying religious groups: o Church o Sect o Universal Church o Ecclesia o Denomination o Cult • The social sources of denomination: idea that sects develop and tend to become more like churches • Secularization: contemporary opinions are moving in this direction • The concept that some religions/religious organization should be viewed as business firms • Stark & Co. believe that the most important product that religious firms market are compensators • A compensator is a strategy for obtaining a reward at a later date- Stark suggests that the compensator that sells best always encompasses two attributes 1) reward involved will be of immense value 2) difficult for people to evaluate if the specified strategy will indeed lad to a promised reward • For example: join my church, follow its rules and God will give you a place in heaven for eternity • In Canada, where no formal establishment of religion has existed since the mid 1800s- there is what is called shadow establishments • Breyer: the theory of religious economies should be superseded by a recognition that several different, regionally specific developmental patterns may occur and that there is a third option- invisible religions • Evangelical Christianity: Christians who belong to the Protestant tradition, who have been “born again”, who strive to lead others to a similar “born again” experience, who have a high regard for the bible; many political leaders have been evangelical Christians though in Canada there are less. It’s because it’s less popular among Canada Protestants. Evangelical Christianity and Christian fundamentalism are not identical Being Catholic and a Homosexual: • Homosexuals are discriminated against in all religious congregations • Official Catholic teaching regards non-procreative sex as wrong and so thus believes homosexual activity is wrong • Many gays/lesbians who were raised as a Catholic have abandoned their religion Chapter 12 Media • The term media derives from the word medium • It is a connection between two things, or a way of communicating ideas to the public • Mass Media: TV, radio, Internet etc. Communication addressed to a large, anonymous, unknown audience • Mediascape: datasphere • Bell: o Technological change o Information society: network society o New, post industrial society o More technical work rather than manufacturing work- replaced by machines o More technological advancements because of greater scientific knowledge o Information explosion: growing demand for news, entertainment and instrumental knowledge o More literate and educated in a vast world connected through cable, phone and satellite o Renamed to information society Information Society: • Technology is moving us into a new society • Technological determinism • Problems: o Technological unemployment o Intrusive surveillance o Electronic crime • The Future: o Increase in prosperity o Decrease in manual labor o Creative and interesting jobs o More democratic and participatory in society o Focused on new media technology • New technologies promote two way communication: people are transmitters and receives of information • Active consumers Political Economy of Media: • This view looks at media in relation to issues of power and wealth • People with more power and wealth control the media • Political fights over who controls the media is common • The media is looked to as a means for freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of press • Public sphere: where people are allowed to express their opinions without the censorship of the government • Examples of political use of media: o Hitler and Stalin used the media as propaganda and used technology as surveillance to watch people o In many countries, revolutionary groups have risen through the use of illegal media o In China, the student revolt received great publicity worldwide, but the Chinese government used the same footage to capture political aspects • Media is privately owned in democratic countries, and an important part of the culture industry • Conglomeration of media by a few dominant companies • Why is this a concern? Because freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who won it • Commercial ownership distorts messages: radio these days focuses on consumerism • This influence allows the companies to reap the profits and wield power • These companies prefer entertainment that keep people in a buying mood rather then one that questions the social structure • This has promoted the use of DIY media such as underground or alternative media, which tries to display the real issues and fight against the commercial media Media Audiences: • Hypodermic model: injecting the mass audience with messages that make them act in a certain way o Voting for a particular political party o Increase in violent acts o CBS war of the worlds demonstration: people really though the world was under attack by aliens • Media is suspected to be an instrument of capitalist indoctrination: o Increased use of drugs o Increase in pre-marital sex o Increased break down of families o Decrease in religious practice • But this is hard to prove because the required effects cannot be isolated from other influences such as gender and social class • Because of the vague results, sociologists now ask not “what does media do to people” but instead ask, “what do people do with the media?” • Cultural studies school • Media is not just about how media is encoded, but also about how the aduiences decodes it • How the message is received depends on the individuals’ economic class, gender, age etc • The audience can further change the original message • TV shows are set up to promote the ‘Couch-Potato’ • The series makes no sense if pulled apart, but the point of having the series is to bring back the audience Gender and the Media: • Media plays a major role in determining our gender roles and gender identity • Media determines who we find attractive • Feminists say that men dominate the media: o Although there are a lot of women on screen, most of the backstage, production and ownership is down by men • This creates a image of masculine control over women in the media • TV reinforces gender stereotypes • TV viewing habits are different between men and women: o Men plan their TV time more than women o Men talk about TV less than women o Women multitask when watching TV, men don’t. This is manly because of the responsibilities of the women at home: regardless of whether the work outside of the house or not • But images of women have changed a lot • Kilbourne: o Believes that media is less women friendly now than it was in the past because of the unattainable image it portrays o It expects women to be successful in their careers, be caring mothers, and look good all the time o The sex image promotes pre-marital sex, anorexia, depression etc Violence and the Media: • The portrayal of violence has increased in media and video games recently • If this death is glorified, it might influence the audience and promote violence • But the alternate argument: surrogate theory: suggests that the media and video games are a good outlet for aggression that might otherwise be put into action, thereby reducing the amount of violence • The rebuttal is that video games add a whole new dimension of realism to the killing. The military uses video games to increase the intensities of their soldiers, acting as informal training • Bandura’s Doll Experiment • Desensitization: people end up loosing any emotions attached to death and murder • Dis-inhibition: people end up letting go of their morals and act on impulse to be violent • Studies have shown that even extended viewing of sesame street can cause violence, it is all about the colours, not the content • But its wrong to assume that violent media will cause the audience to react violently because a range of other things are in effect such as gender, age, race, social class and ethnicity • Gerbner: o Cultivation effect o Looked at TV shows and compared them to reality o TV had a lot more violence than reality and less help than reality o Then took a group of TV viewers, segregated them into light, medium and heavy viewers, then asked each group whether they though that reality was like the TV shows o The results of the light and heavy viewers was the same dependent on their social classes o He concluded that television cultivates an image of the real world, which makes people welcome the use of police o Any influence of the media is negligible, if at all existent Media and Globalization: • McLuhan: o Technology will create a global villages o Media is connecting the world economically, politically and culturally o But, global integration is not the same as global equality • Information imbalance means that some people are better equipped with media and have more access to media than others • Global media is a tool of cultural imperialism • Many shows are read in a certain way in order for it to relate to the culture it is read in in • So the USA does not impose uniform values across the world • Rather than one-way stream with the west influencing the world, hybridization is occurring with a two way stream of change • Barber: o Jihaad vs. McWorld o Jihaad refers to all movements that are religious, ethnic or nationalist o McWorld refers to everything that is commercial o He says the world will be swept with both contradictory currents Cyberspace: • Computer networks are of great interest • Although everything on computers and the internet just exist in the cables and memory of computers, we talk about it as a whole new dimension: cyberspace • All participants can send and receive • Rheingold: o Virtual community o Tonnes: loss of feeling that we replace by impersonal, faceless association o People search virtual interactions for a way of reversing the tendency to isolation o Virtual communities do have advantages: people can meet based on common interests and anonymity of online relationships gives the opportunity to experiment with a more fluid sense of self o Hope for growth of an electronic civil society, reviving direct participation and overcoming remoteness • Disadvantages: o Misunderstandings are common o Possibilities of deception o Removes commitments o Removes constraints to act more responsibly o Virtual communities help with the decline of the public realm o Virtual Commerce: advertising, cutting costs, making customization easier etc… business in cyberspace Chapter 13 Education Functions of education- functionalism • Socialization: o Teach societal expectations and the norms and values of society o Formal curriculum versus hidden curriculum o Parsons theorized that education functions to redirect young people from the emotional and person-centered demands to home and family life, toward the more formalized, competitive and achievement-oriented demands of adult life o Functionalist perspective also says that education helps people to accept role of differentiation because it is based on meritocratic principles • Employment: o Preparing for productive labor force o Lifelong learning Education and Social Inequality- Conflict Theory: • Argues that schools are to keep dominant groups in power, while creating an illusion of opportunity, objectivity, neutrality and fairness • Gender: o Recently, women have surpassed men in the amount of education they obtain o However, women still have to deal with the glass ceiling: referring to the fact that women can see the top, but not reach in, in regard to careers and equal salaries • Ethnicity: o Ogbu outline the categories of how minorities relate to one another o Autonomous Minorities: minorities in a numerical sense and are largely integrated into the culture of mainstream society and saw their relationship to education systems as no different o Voluntary Minorities: immigrants who have volunt
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