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Sociology 1020
Catherine Corrigall- Brown

 Soc. Lecture Notes­ April     Deviance • Deviance vs. crime • Serious crimes to breaking societal norms • Historical deviance doesn’t equate to present day deviance­ changes over time  (ex. Nelson Mandela) • What is considered acceptable changes over time • Smoking used to be considered a norm now considered deviant •  Rosenhan “On Being Sane in Insane Places” o Once diagnosed as mentally ill everything was seen through the lense of sickness o the label changes the way peple are viewed • Dalton Conley “FortyAcres and a Mule: What ifAmerican Pays Reparations?” o Measures taken by the state to address gross systematic violations of human rights through the administration of some form for restitution o The state or national levelAcknowledging suffering, offering regrets and compensation for violations o Reparations for slavery- 40 acres of land and a mule o In order to help people start a life but was never paid o 6-7 generations later how to repay reparations that were never paid and compensate for an injustice that happened so long ago o Who should get paid?And who should pay? o Slaves- those who directly suffered, could have many descendants now o Descendants of slave owners didn’t do anything wrong o Factoring in inflation to lost wages is in the billions/ trillions • Residential schools o First nations truth and reconciliation commission of Canada o Truth part is learning about what happened, allowing people to tell their stories and education o Also work to repair damages to individuals (ex. Loss of childhood), but also select individuals that experienced abuse, and communities as a whole (loss of culture, language etc.) The Media and Language • the sapir- whorf hypothesis- language shapes how we understand and think about the world- doesn’t determine what we think but mediates by affect what and how we see o Holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its  respective speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or  otherwise influences their cognitive processes. o Having multiple/ hundreds of words for one thing allows us to see the  difference o 1984­ you can control what people think based on the language they use  (if you don’t have the word you cant think of the concept) • Moore­ Racism in the English Language o Black and white dichotomy o Ex. White lie, innocence and darkness, good vs. bad  o The reason we have these connotations is because our society is racist o Our language is actually a reflection of our culture as a whole • Why Sexist Language Matters • Freedom of Speech o Unfettered ability to comm. With an audience, access to a platform to send  out those messages, and lack of censorship­ ability to say whatever we  want o Must have these three things to have freedom of speech o If you have access to internet etc. you have a greater ability to affect what  is in the mass media • The Power Elite C.Wright Mills o Interwoven interests of leaders of military corporations and political  elements of society o These three groups of people share a lot of interests o All these groups are dependent upon one another to remain in power o Regular citizens are relatively powerless to the manipulation of these  groups o We should look at the psychological similarities between these elites o These people tend to run in the same circles and grown up in same  environment o Most prime ministers were lawyers­ intermingling between corporate and  political circles o Movements, elections, strikes are ways in which these groups still need to  be responsive to general public o Idea diversity­ lack of due to monopoly of mass media industry o Representation of different groups in the media is not very diverse as a  result o Individual crimes make news­ even though crime rate is declining o Things that are sensational get so much coverage that things that actually  matter are being neglected o Diversity is not being represented o More tv watching led to lower self esteem for black boys and black and  white girls but higher self esteem for white boys­ o Best representation for white boys • Three stages of corporate media literacy o Be aware of your media diet­ what are you consuming o Learn critical viewing skills o Learn to examine what is behind the scenes •  Lifestyle advertisi ­ not promoting product but the person you could be if you  used this product (fun, friends and popularity, sex and relationships,  attractiveness, friendship and bonding, sports and athleticism • media literacy training is quite effective­ alcohol related media training resulted in  an increased understanding of the persuasive intent of ad o led to seeing through gaps, lesser desire to be like people featured in ads Work and Rationalization • A major change in modern society is the rise of rationalization • Pre enlightenment­ things are explained through non­ scientific terms o Pre­ rationalization thought was that things were caused by mystical/  spiritual/ religious reasons • Most people today do not explain things by supernatural forces • Enlightenment­ using the scientific method to try and explain things  (rationalization) • Disenchantment of the world­ everything is rational and erosion of religious  authority • Based on 4 things o Predictability o Calculability o Efficiency o Control • Optimal means towards an end • Rationality isn’t about the best way but rather the most efficient and calculable  way • Breaking a job down to smaller and smaller standardized bits • Rationalization permeates all aspects of life • Examples of rationalization (online dating, assembly line) • Beaurocracy o Rule of the desk (office) o Western, government Canada etc. o Large organizations in charge of certain principles  o Ideal type of beurocracy  Hierarchically org. into offices  Chain of command  Clear   Abstract formal rules­ written policy manuals  Technical qualifications rule  Decision making rules are impersonal • Wider range of goods and services available to larger portion of the population • Provides a feeling of familiarity and standardization • The irrationality of rationality o Highly rationalized systems can lead to negative outcomes • Rise of the service sector o Now vast majority of jobs are in the service sector • Emotional labour o Acting in a way that is consistent with what the company wants you to be  not how you actually feel o Managing emotions so that they are consistent with organizational dispay  rules o Produce an emotional state in someone else= goal o Customer can be rude to you but you cant be rude back or act annoyed o Surface acting­ painting on emotion without actually feeling it o Deep acting­ actually changing inner emotion Education Marx on Education Function of Education Schools as agencies of ideological transmission­ schools are responsible for socializing their pupils  into an ideology that serves the interests of a capitalist ruling class The correseponde
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