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Sociology Midterm 2 Lecture Notes.docx

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Sociology – Term Two Lecture Notes Along with Tutorial Readings from Chapters: 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 39) Unit One: Gender Sex – ascribed status, something you’re born with – biological category based on physiological differences o Sex is a continuum from male to female o Sex is natural and biologically determined o But 1-3% of babies are born “intersexed” (both male and female) Gender- socially constructed social category; based on social expectations for individuals o Set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture over time within a society o Gender norms: rules for specifying appropriate behavior for each gender o Gender-role socialization occurring during primary socialization Sex Codes: Premarital Sexual Standards (Gender Behavior Codes) These standards regulate sexual behavior outside of marriage (the majority of societies accepts premarital sex) 1. Abstinence standard (forbid premarital sex) 2. Double standard – men could have premarital sex, women could not 3. Love standard – women: sex is an expression of lose; accepted when love is present 4. Fun standard – men: tool of pleasure Rismen: studied how sex standards were operating he surveyed 19000 people between 18 and 21 and asked them: “if women or men hook up or have sex with lots of people will you respect them less?” the answers fell into the categories: • Egalitarian Conservatives – lose respect equally • Egalitarian Liberals – no respect lost • Traditional Double Standard • Reverse Double Standard Becoming Our Gender We develop our Gender Identity between the ages of 18 months – 3 years; our Gender Identity is our Gendered Order that we need to earn and learn o Achieved Status – achieved though socialization o Master Status – always preforming out learn gender Our Gender Identity is a powerful aspect of self-concept which developed in accordance with the individual’s gender and the social definition of that gender within the lard gendered order (invisible force in society) Gender Order: the set of structural relation through which people are treated differently because of their gender – impacts gender identity o In most societies patriarchy is present and women are “other” to the norm, which is male o Patriarchy: a system of dominancy in which cultural, political and economic structures have been created by men and are maintained for the benefit of men as a group o How patriarchy works is based on the culture of the society Gender Intensification: occurs in secondary socialization – the process by which individuals are influenced to hyper-differentiate themselves from the other gender in terms of appearance and behavior o Due to pressures to conform and intensified socialization o Perpetuated by the mass media ; adolescence is a key period of this identity manipulation, during which they see more than 3,000 ads per day Effects: 1. Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that they will later perform 2. Impossible standards leads to low self-esteem and high dissatisfaction 3. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship and perpetuates gender inequality Gender Stereotypes Attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or female • Men and women are inheritably different, leading to different life opportunities • For most characteristics, there is more similarities than difference between the genders • Most human characteristics call into a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION where a small proportion of people rate much higher, a small rate much lower; but most fall somewhere in the middle • There is a greater different within a gender than between genders Persistence of Gender Differences Gender schema’s (heuristic) shape the way we notice, interpret and remember information according to our expectations about gender o Social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different capability o “Naturalization of Biology” – gender socialization leads male and females to develop different sills and attitudes which leads to different behaviors – the difference in behavior seem to confirm the appropriateness of the different roles Gender Stratification – social status and social roles that mean and women occupy in society; starts in the family • Leads to social attitudes about “correct” gender roles • Place in society is based on the value we place on their role in the division of labor Wage Gap – outcome of social stratification • More women are reviving university degrees and more women are in the labor force then men • Pink collar ghettos (female occupational ghettos) remain • Women do most of the unpaid work at home • Females working full time earn 72 cents on the male dollar Reasons for Gendered Wage Gap: - Human Capital Factors: education, experience - Demographic Factors: material status/children - Job Characteristics: type of work - Feminization of Poverty Housework - For Women: Double Ghetto = pink collar labor + unpaid domestic labor • 74 percent of household chores are done by women • Women are burdened with “second shift” work and unpaid work at home Theories and Gender: Structural Functionalism: gendered practices promote social stability and create complementary roles o Women do private realm and expressive tasks o Men to public realm and instrumental tasks o Maintains status quo Symbolic Interactionism: gender roles and identities are negotiable since children learn gender behavior through socialization. Children learn gender appropriate behavior and they learn that going against these leads to sanctions Marxist/Conflict: women’s position in family likened to oppressed working class – industrialization resulted in greater gender inequality than earlier economic systems o Male control over women and resources developed from primitive communism where everything was based on sex and age o Ownership of private property increases inequality and subordination of women o Double Jeopardy – discrimination do to race and ethnicity towards women o Multiple Jeopardy – class, age, religion, disability, race and ethnicity discrimination towards women Feminism – advocacy for social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism. Gender is interconnected with race, class, sexual orientation and disability to produce multiple layers of inequality and discrimination Unit Two: Family The Family: Basic Concepts: Family is a social institution that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children; socialization and gender socialization begin here • Kinship – a social bond based on blood, marriage or adoption • Family Unit – two or more people who are related by blood, adoption, marriage or some other form of extended commitment and who reside together • Nuclear Family – 31.9% in Canada: one to two parents and their unmarried children (Standard North American Family) • Extended Family – nuclear family plus other kin; immigrant and first nation families • Endogamy – marriage between people of the dame social category • Exogamy – marriage between people of different social categories • Consanguine Marriage – extreme form in which blood relatives marry each other • Marriage – approved marital arrangements in a society; each society established norms based on endogamy and exogamy to establish who is best to marry whom • Propinquity – spatial proximity • Homogamy – people marry those like themselves regarding religion, ethnicity, education (preference, not a rule) • Heterogamy – marriage between people who are dissimilar in some important regard such as religion, ethnicity, social class, personality or age. (preference) – personal choice is guided by social forces • Descent – kinship can be determined, inheritance can be established, wealth/ownership is determined o Bilateral – descent traced through both the mother’s and father’s side of the family o Patrilineal – descent is traced only to the father’s side (most common) o Matrilineal – descent is traced only to the mother’s side • Patrilocality – married couple live with or near the husband’s family • Matrilocality – married couple live with or near the wife’s family • Neolocaility – married couple live alone; there is a shift in today’s society for a couple to live with parents due to economic situation Marriages and Arrangements Married couples are now not the majority in Canada (48%) Marriage Patterns o Monogamy – only legal marriage in Canada; legal in most industrial societies o Polygamy – marriage that unites three or more o Polygyny – one man with two or more women (most common) o Polyandry – one woman with two or more men; societies where mean are greatly outnumber women o Polyamory – multiple lovers (0.5-3.5 of Canadian population) o Institutional convergence – pattern of marriage trait emerges Marriage Rates in Canada • Marriage rates in Canada increased until the great depression, from then it’s been decreasing • The fastest growing type in Canada is common law couples (16.7%) • Same-sex couples are now considered a legal couple in Canada (0.8% in 2011) Other Lifestyles o Staying single (majority single 2011) o Living together (Cohabitation; fastest growing family type o Gay/Lesbian marriages (usually younger couples) Cohabitation – the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple o 16.7% of Canadian families in 2011 o Kiernan identified Four Stages of Acceptance: 1. Views as a prelude to marriage 2. Viewed as a probation stage 3. Viewed as socially acceptable 4. Cohabitation becomes an alternative or substitute for marriage Transitions and Problems in Family Life Home Leaving - Many young people have stayed at home (42.3% of 20-29 year olds) and other have returned due to education and economics Divorce – 40% of all marriages will end in divorce due to an increase in liberalization of divorce laws, increase of individualism, increase independence of women and divorce becoming more socially acceptable Infidelity – 45% of men and 35% of women will cheat if given the opportunity; cheaters are generally doomed to fail and contribute to uxoricide (murdering of wife) Remarriage80% of divorced remarry; men are more likely to remarry in 18 months, while women remarry within 5 years, this is because women usually take care of the children after a separation Parenting in Other Cultures – authoritative parenting style is rare in non-western cultures; parents are obeyed without question or explanation and there is greater inherent authority Theories Strucutral-Fuctional – society depends on families and the family performs several vital tasks: 1. Socialization 2. Regulation of sexual activity 3. Social placement 4. Material and emotional security Conflict Analysis – family plays a role in social stratification and perpetuates social inequality: 1. Property and inheritance 2. Patriarchy 3. Racial and ethnic inequality Symbolic Interactionism – explores how individuals shape and experience family life • Family living offers an opportunity for intimacy • Family members share activities and build emotional bongs • Courtship and marriage may be seen are forms of negotiation Feminism – family perpetrator of gender roles; rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically cause for concern Future Change and Continuity o Marriage not likely to go out of styles o Biggest change: liberation of gender roles and an unlinking of gender and caring o Women work and men care for children more o Within a decade 2 to 3% of births result in NRT’s Unit Three: Family Violence Domestic Violence - Any use of physical or sexual force, actual or threatened, in an intimate relationship, including emotional/psychological abuse or harassing behavior • Although both women and men can be victims of domestic violence, the overwhelming majority of this violence involves men abusing women (98%) • 64% of male abusers (in Canada) witnessed or were abused as children The “Cycle of Violence”- most victims experience domestic assault over and over again, making domestic assault critically different from other forms of assault or violence. The cycle of violence may vary in length but there is three distinct phases to the domestic assault cycle: 1. The Tension Building Phase o Psychological abuse increase o Victim is fearful and tries to pacify partner and avert a violent incident o Assaulter blames victim for “provoking” assault 2. The Battering Phase o Visible injuries or none at all o Victims often dazed or immobilized by fear or shock o May include a sexual assault 3. The Manipulation Phase o Assaulters may show remorse and kindness afterwards o Victim is pressured for forgiveness and made to feel guilty Abuse = Power + Control (abuse starts with psychological abuse) Victim Profile: Offender Profile: • Found in all socio-economic, racial, • Found in all socio-economic, racial, cultural, education, age and religious cultural, educational, age, and religious groups groups • Fearful, isolated, and feels helpless • Victims of abuse or witnessed abuse as a child • Minimizes abuse • Externalizes problem • Low self-esteem • Excessive jealousy, very insecure, • Lacks resources or knowledge angry, denial • Emotionally dependent Unit Four: Media Political Conflict of Media (Conflict Theory) Basic Concern: the relationship between mass media and the distribution of power in society o Media is based on social integration o Media provides dominant ideology created by social elites o Media reinforces social norms, confers status, supports economy o Functions to preserve the interests of privileged groups in society o Narcitizing Effect – media provide too much information that we as the public become desensitized and to not act appropriately Media Alert: Myth vs. Reality Glasner: the media distributes a lot of information about internet predators in order to “protect children from sexual abuse by pedophiles on-line BUT… • There are very few documented cases of predators – this is out of proportional with media awareness • No clear stats or data on the commonness of predators attacking children through on-line resources Outcome: Hysteria is high, real life threat is low. Stories increase hysteria and lead to increased precautions Rape in the Media Media: roofies use by rapists is common; Fact: no stats/studies/hard evidence; Main factor: large amounts of alcohol o Myth – women rapes by strangers who are psychological misfits (stories told by media) o Reality – majority of women raped by known assailant who is “normal” o Stories told by the media perceive males as personality distraught and that they are minority – but this is FALSE Studies and the Media • Canadian study indicated that 60% of males would commit sexual assault if they would not be caught • 14% of university males admitted to physically abusing women (11% in Canada) • 50% of males admitted that they would force a women to have sex if they could get away with it there is a higher change of being raped a second or third time Jackson-Katz • “normal males” are expected to be aggressive and heterosexual within our patriarchal society • Rape is the outcome of social norms of males • Rapists are males that “took it too far” • Culture creates a patriarchal society in which men are forced to be masculine and aggressive leading to results such as sexual assault and rape Noam Chomsky and Edward Hermann o Economic elites in every society have the same problem, which is how to use power to create social arrangements (maintain status quo) o Economic elites drawn on power of the state involving direct control over media o Democratic elite find alternate ways to control status quo; “free press” is a myth since the media functions to benefit the elite and privileged “Manufacture of Consent” – Function: 1. Divert the masses 2. Marginalize dissent 3. Create necessary illusions 4. Promote ways of seeing the world that benefit the elite 5. Produce the image that the world is dangerous, scary and bad, and that rules must be creates to control this Unit Five: Education Education – the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge • “form follows function” – capitalist societies in which all institutions (including family) will be made to support the economic system. How the economic system functions determines how the other institutions are set up • Educates with basics: literacy, numeracy, social aspect • Education is not needed or highly presence in low income societies • Functions of Schooling - Integration - Promotion of social solidarity - Socialization - Schooling is a means of social control (holding tank for young when labor options are minimal) - Provides a cultural lifeline between social stage - Integrates different ethnic groups - Helps people gain improves statuses - Agent of social control The Rise of Schooling o 130 years of universal mandatory education – original purpose was to create social control (not about educating us) o Government implied child labor laws in 1890s so they could not work days o School in an institution into which the state can control and see over children and their families Engagement and Achievement • Engagements: being psychologically committed to learning • Students are becoming increasingly disengaged from school • Working class is more psychologically present but can become
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