Study Guides (248,397)
Canada (121,509)
Sociology (977)
Kim Luton (69)

Sociology Midterm 1 lecture notes.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Sociology Midterm 1 Unit 1 • What is sociology? o Social relations between individuals and groups of people within a particular society o “Patterned group behaviour” o How social and cultural forces influence people • The Social Imagination o C. Wright Mills o We see the world through our experiences and the lens of our own eyes • Levels of Analysis o Biography  Your individual experience  Human Agency: the ability to act o Milieu  Your community, sense of belonging, your everyday context  Gemeinschaft (Tonnies) – “sense of belonging” o History  The society you live in and the structures  Society/Structures (what opens or retrains opportunities • Private troubles: focusing on individuals (ex. Debt) • Public issues: problems at the level of society (the history) • Anthony Giddens: Structuration Theory o Double Involvement of self in society  Products: You are a product of your society  Producers: We can bring about social change Sociological Theory • Sociology is: the systematic study of social behaviour in human societies • 1838- Auguste Comte (Father of sociology) o “A new way of looking at the world” – sociology o “Positivism”  Understanding the world based on scientific methods Sociological Perspectives • What is a theory? –Making sense out of something puzzling o Theory: A statement of how and why certain facts are related; explains patterns o Theoretical paradigms: A basic image of society guiding thinking and research  Structural functionalism  Conflict theory  Symbolic interactionism  Feminism Structural Functionalism • Society is a complex system of working parts (like a watch) • A macro-level orientation • Structures are stable patterns of social behaviour (usually invisible factors like age) • Institutions are “subsystems” of enduring patterns of social relationships (ex. Family) • Equilibrium: The normal state of a system (stability) o Changes in one structure or institution provoke changes in other • Want slow changes so institutions and structures can catch up • Manifest Functions o Open, stated, conscious functions of institutions; these involve intended, recognized, consequences of an aspect of society • Latent Functions o Unconscious or unintended functions that may reflect hidden purposes of an institution o Ex. Function of family: To procreate, to socialize, etc. o Ex. Function of education: To provide knowledge, make people literate, etc. • Eufunction: A positive benefit for society maintaining equilibrium (ex. Socializing the next generation) • Dysfunction: Element or process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or reduce its stability (Ex. Divorce—because you will stop having kids) • Critique: o Too broad o Ignores inequalities of social class, race, and gender o Focuses on stability at the expense of conflict o Functional for whom? Emile Durkheim • Father of structural functionalism • Society= social system o Has certain basic needs (food, water, shelter, order, reproduction) • Social structures and institutions fulfil needs • Society > individual • Anomie: Normlessness (not knowing what to expect, no rules) • Evolving societies o Change from mechanical solidarity (social bonds in small pre-industrial societies) to organic solidarity (industrial societies; interdependence) o Key to the change is an expanding division of labour (DOL) o Pre-industrial societies have a simple DOL based on tradition o Modern societies have a complex DOL—functional interdependence • Suicide: An indication of social problems; lack of integration o Suicide rates vary by gender, marital status, religion, etc. Conflict Theory • Macro-orientated • Views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change • Best to understand tension between competing groups • Society is structures in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority o Dominant group vs. minority group • Differential Access: wealth, power, prestige • Alienation: the experience of isolation from powerlessness o Capitalism alienates workers in four specific ways:  From act of working  From the products of work  From other workers  From human potential Karl Marx • Historical materialist • Economic system= material conditions/forces • Did not believe in a middle class • Economic processes—modes of production determine all processes and social change • Ownership over means of production is the basis for other forms of inequality • Class: A social category based on ownership and control over mans of production • Two classes: o Bourgeoisie: Owners of capital dominate o Proletariat: Workers sell labour • Classes have different interests—leads to conflict based on class consciousness (an awareness of exploitation) • Economic system is base of society • Social institutions: Society’s subsystems, organized to meet basic human needs • False consciousness: Explanations of social problems grounded in an individual’s, not society’s, shortcomings • Institutions are part of the super structure and support the economic system Symbolic Interactionism • Micro (small scale) • Society arises as a “shared reality” • A symbol is something that meaningfully represents something else o Ex. Money is a symbol of the ability to purchase products Max Weber • “Verstehen”= to understand • No single factor determines society or the individual • Social conflict may originate in values, statuses, ideas, and not in economic interests only • Ruling class use beliefs to legitimate their position, so that other classes will cooperate in their own subordination • Rationalization of society: o Change from tradition to rationality Feminism • The study of women’s lives o Macro: constraints and forms of resistance in women’s lives o Micro: reproduction of gender through language and emotion management • Material Feminism: Early 19 century o Moral crusaders—improve society o Temperance movement o Women’s suffrage • Liberal Feminism: o Early 60’s o Women gain equality via access to education and jobs • Radical Feminism: o Patriarchy- universal cause of women’s oppression o Women- organize separately from men to protect their interests • Social Feminism (Marxism): o Gender inequalities based on economic factors; influenced by class inequalities o Women—organize with men of the same class to solve their problems of gender inequalities • Common characteristics: o Gender inequalities not biologically determined, but socially constructed o Patriarchy present in nearly all societies o Transnational feminism Unit 2 • Code of Conduct: o Respect subject’s right to privacy and dignity o Maintain objectivity and integrity in research o Protect subject’s from personal harm o Seek informed consent • Sociological investigation starts with two simple requirements: o Use the sociological perspective o Be curious and ask questions o Empirical evidence: Information we observe with our senses o Positivism: Taking the natural science steps and applying them to humans • Five ways of knowing the world: o Personal o Tradition o Authority o Religion  All four = what ought to be (normative approach) o Science  Empirical approach o All valid o We never prove anything; information only supports • Scientific Method: o Define the problem  State as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate  Operational Definition: Explanation of abstract concept specific enough to allow researcher to asses concept o Review the literature  Scholarly studies relevant to the subject o Formulate a testable hypothesis  Variable: Measurable trait subject to change under different conditions (ex. Age, gender, ethnicity, etc.)  Independent variable: Cause or influence of another variable  Dependent variable: Influenced by the independent variable  Causal Logic: Involves relationships between a variable and a particular consequence  Correlation: A relationship by which two or more variables change together (but you don’t know what causes what)  Spurious correlation: An apparent, though false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variable o Select a research design; collect and analyze data  Survey  Observation  Experiment  Existing sources  Sample: Selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population  Random sample: When every member of the population has the same chance of being selected  Validity: Degree to which a measure truly reflect the phenomenon being studied (precision)  Reliability: Extent to which a measure provides consistent results (consistency) o Develop the conclusion  You never prove a hypothesis; you can disprove or support Major Research Designs • Surveys: Quantitative Research (# counting) o Interviews (face-to-face or telephone)  High response rate  Probe beyond questionnaire o Questionnaires  Printed or written form to obtain information  Inexpensive  Good for large samples  Disadvantage: people lie; doesn’t describe personality accurately • Field Research: Qualitative Research (trying to understand people) o Relying on what is seen in field and naturalistic settings  Often focusing on small groups or communities o Observation  Participant Observation • Ethnography: Efforts to describe entire social setting through extended systematic observation • In-Depth Interviews o Uncover layers of meaning in participants responses o Semi structured  Specific questions but flexible enough to enable participants to direct their responses o Unstructured  Open-ended not confined to core set of questions • Experiments o Artificially created situations allowing manipulation of variables o Experimental Group: Exposed to independent variable o Control Group: Not exposed to independent variable o Hawthorne Effect: Reactivity to being studied • Use of Existing Sources: o Secondary Analysis: Research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data o Content Analysis: Systematic coding and objective recording of data, guided by some rationale Unit 3: Culture • Proxemics: communication; culturally specific relations in time and space o Edward T. Hall o Time- 5 minutes rule o Space- Territoriality (Laying claim, taking up space in a public domain)  Two forms of “silent language” o Territorial Realignment o Intimate distance: 0-1 feet o Personal distance: 1-4 feet o Social distance: 4-12 feet o Public distance: 12+ feet • What is culture? Culture varies, but all cultures have five common components: o Symbols  Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture o Language  A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another  Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: • Language proceeds thoughts • Language is not a given • Language is culturally
More Less

Related notes for Sociology 1020

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.