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SOC 1020 Notes for the entire year

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Sociology 1020
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CHAPTER 1 What is SociologySociology looking at the world in a different waytheories of social relations between individuals and groupsstudy of social behaviourrelationshipsOrigins of SociologyAuguste Comte saw it as a new way to look at the world helps to guide society and heal its problemsPositivismunderstanding societies using scientic methodsLevels of Analysis1Biography who you are and your own experiences human agencyability to act2Milieu community placement Gemeinshaftsense of belonging3History society and its structures4 Theoretical Paradigms1 Structural Functionalism created by Durkheim macrolevel orientationboth dysfunctions and functions serve a purpose they work together to maintain an equilibriumall classes are essential to societyStructures stable patterns of social behaviour ex culture gender social hierarchy ageInstitutions subsystems of enduring patterns of social relationships ex religion family schoolManifest Functions stated conscious functions of institutions intended aspects of societies ex manifest function of schooleducationLatent Functions unconscious or unintended functions that reect hidden purpose of institutions ex latent function of schoolsocial skills conformityEufunction positive benets for society maintaining equilibriumDysfunction element that disrupts social systems or causes instabilityanomy lack of usual social standards2Conict Theory created by Karl Marx macrolevel orientationthere is always inequality between groupsin order for social change to occur lower group must revolutionize against the power key to eliminate bourgeoisieBourgeoisie who owns means of production dominantProletariat workersbenet of the few at the expense of the manyclass consciousness recognition of workers for their need for solidaritysocial institutions societys subsystems organized to meet basic human needsfalse consciousness explanations of social problems grounded in an individuals shortcomings3Symbolic Interactionism created by Weber pluralistsees many different factorsmicrolevel orientationsociety is the product of EVERYDAY interactions of individualssociety as a shared realitysymbolsomething that meaningfully represents something else ex smile handshakeno single factor determines society or individualRationalization of Society change from tradition to rationality of rest of the world4Feminism can be both micro resistance in womens lives and macro reproduction of gender through language and emotion oriented focus of gender equality4 main types1 Maternal women as moral crusadersin voting belief that women have more care for their families and others2 Liberal women working together to have equal access to resources3 Radical every system is patriarchal therefore women must create their own society to protect their interests4 Socialist like Conict Theory inequality comes from economical differencesCHAPTER 2 Research MethodsQuantitative Methods Durkheimcounting and precise measurement of observable behaviourlimited number of variables and a predictionnatural sciencesQualitative Methods Webersociologists need to UNDERSTAND behaviour not just predict itsocial action meaningful goaldirected behaviourparticipant observation researchers observe actual behaviour talk with those being observed ask meaning perspective not theoryAxiomatic logic making connecting links between related theoretical statementsDeductive logic deriving a specic statement from a more general statement5 ways of knowing the world1Personal 2Tradition 3AuthorityNormative Approach approach you can see4Religion5Science Empirical Evidence supported by evidence Scientic Method1Dene the problem2Review Literature3Formulate a hypothesisCausal logic relationships between variable and particular consequenceCorrelation relationship by which two or more variables change together BUT not clear which causes whatSpurious correlation apparent but FALSE relationship between variablesValidity degree to which a measure truly reects the phenomenon being studiedReliability extent to which a measure provides consistent resultsSecondary Analysis research techniques that make use of previously existing dataContent Analysis systematic codingobjective recording of data guided by some rationale
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