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sociology final notes.odt

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Sociology 1020
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SOCIOLOGY FINAL EXAM NOTESNEW CONTENTChapter 5 DevianceDeviance The Recognized Violation of Cultural NormsObjective View Presence of certain characteristics defining devianceStatistical rarity societal harm societal reaction normative violationSubjective View No shared observable characteristics that defines what or who is deviantSocial typing processes description evaluation prescriptionFunctions of DevianceUnite people us vs ThemMoral holiday weekends at Western let off steamProvide scapegoats easy to blameSets moral boundaries change from one person to anotherMark bottom layer of society people work hard to be above that ie homelessWarning sign drug problems and school shootingsSocial changeTheoretical PerspectivesFunctionalismStability and consensus are keyDevianceeufunctionaccomodate acceptable devianceDeviancedysfunctionfixEufunction going faster than speed limit on highway to keep up there is lenience and acceptanceDysfunction going 140 when speed limit is 100 get pulled over to fixAnomie feeling of normlessness or absence of social regulation of behaviour strainConsensus over norms values and beliefs in societyMost deviance is a dysfunctional characteristic in the social structureCriticism assesses consensus in society ignores variables and differences among people Merton Disciple of DurkheimNonachievement causes anomieExcessive deviance messes up stability of societyDifferential opportunityTheory of deviance innovators ritualists retreatists rebelsInnovators deviant to succeed own gain cheating on examRitualists deviant as they give up on reaching goals and means bureaucratic follows rules strictly honest and hardworking not much surplus cash lost sight of goal old cars modest homes since every rule is a guideline must be exceptionsRetreatists double failures reject both means and goals couldnt make it as anything elseRebels revolutionaries reject both means and goals create their own want to change society active retreatists whom advocate a new systemSymbolic InteractionismDifferential Association SutherlandLearning to be deviant and learning to conform are the same processFrequency priority duration intensityLearned through socialization in a deviant subculture or environmentUses techniques of neutralization justification for devianceprimary and secondary stagesrelative to societys labelling an individual deviantrelative to an individuals reaction to being labelled deviant Labelling TheoryThe process by which the label deviant becomes attached to some individuals and some forms of behaviourIt is not the behaviour but the audiences reaction that determines whether an act is deviantLemart Primary and Secondary DeviancePrimary nonconformist acts which occur before a formal or legal response to the behaviour occursSecondary behaviour that occurs after primary deviance and results from the transformation of an individuals self concept from someone who simply did something bad to some who see themselves as badConflict TheoryLooks at structural factors such as poverty for causes of devianceDominant group labels to protect itself and maintain social control under capitalismLaws are weapons used in some societies by the powerful to maintain status quoHuman behaviour is shaped by structural inequalitiesDeviance is defined by the social class which holds powerDeviance is normal response to inequalitySocial Control TheoryAttempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behaviours formal and informalDeviance is deterred by attachment involvement commitment and beliefsFeminist PerspectiveHighlights experiences of all women especially as victims differential treatment of men and women and smaller size affecting violencePatriarchy stringent normative controls behaviour of women and men judged differentlyCrimeThe act itself actus reusCriminal intent mens reaCrimes against the personality 21Crimes against property 62Victimless crimesCrime rate tripled 19621992 declined sincePunishment retribution deterrence rehabilitation social protectionWomen not in large number jails instead treatment programsMen more likely to use illegal drugsWomen abuse legal drugs higher depression rate
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