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Chapter 5 - Deviance.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 1020
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter5DevianceRelativismofDevianceGettingagreementonabehaviourthatisandalwayshasbeendeviantismoredifficulttaskthanitmightfirstappearoManyactswenowseeasreprehensiblewerepreviouslyacceptedegwifeassaultoThereverseisalsotruemanyactsthatwereoncerimesarenowcommonTofurthercomplicatethispicturebyaccentuatinghowsomeactsthatcitizensofWesternsocietiesseeasextremelyreprehensibleareoftenfamiliarandacceptedbehavioursinotherculturesDifferentsocialgroupsoftenembraceveryuniquerulesaboutproperandimproperbehaviourwhichcanclashwithdominantsocialstandardsThestandardsofrightandwrongdeviantandnormaldependonthecontextRelativismthisorientationrecognizesthatwhatcountsasdeviancevariesacrossculturesandthroughhistoryandthereforedoesnotjudgewhethersuchactsarerightorwrongoApurelyacademicorientationawayforsociologiststoexaminedevianceinasdisinterestedamanneraspossibleTheRelationshipbetweenCrimeandDevianceManyofthetheoriesusedtotrytoexplaindeviancecanalsoapplytocriminalbehaviourandviceversabecausethereisaclosealthoughnotperfectrelationshipbetweencrimeanddevianceoDevianceisamuchbroadercategoryandreferstoapatterofnormviolationsNormssharedexpectationsofbehaviourthatprescribewhatisculturallyappropriateordesirableAbnormalviolatesanormwhichimpliesavaluejudgmentthatthebehaviouriswrongoNormsareakintoinformalrulesthatareacquiredthroughprocessesofsocializationCrimesbehavioursthathavebeenofficiallyrecognizedbythestateasseriousformsofantisocialbehaviouralsoformsofdevianceButnotalldeviantbehavioursarecriminaloTherearemanyactssocietymightdisapprovebutthatarenotseenasseriousenoughtojustifybeingelevatedtothestatuesofcrimesThelooserelationshipbetweencrimeanddevianceaccentuatesthattherecanbeanintensepoliticaldynamictodecisionsaboutwhattypesofbehaviourbecomeclassifiedascrimesoVariousgroupshavevestedinterestsindefiningtheactionsofotherindividualsasdeviantorincriminalizingegdownloadingfreemusicStudyingCrimeandDevianceVictimizationandSelfReportStudiesVictimizationSurveystelephoneCanadianstoaskthemwhetherandhowtheymighthavebeenvictimizedinthepasttwelvemonthsSelfreportstudiesaskindividualsabouttheirpersonalexperienceofcrimebutinthiscasetheyaskpeopletoidentifythecrimesthattheyhavepersonallycommittedoverthepreviousyearCrimeisnotararephenomenonundertakenbyafewnotoriousindividualsinsteadcrimesofvariousstripesareverycommonoNoteverycommitsheinousformsofviolentcrimebutmanyhaveengagedinmoreeverydaybehavioursforwhichtheycouldbeprosecutediftheywerecaughttaxevasionillegaldruguseetcBotharenotperfectlikeallsurveysoStudyonlyasampleofthepopulationoSomecrimesarealsonotreportedbecauseindividualsareunawarethattheyhavebeenvictimizedoTheseproblemsarecompoundedbythefactthatparticipantsoftenforgetpriorvictimizationorcannotrememberexactlywhenacrimeoccurredoPeoplelieabouttheircriminalbehaviourEthnographyEthnographyorParticipantObservationinvolvesaresearcherinterviewingindividualsoraccompanyingthemontheirdaytodayroutinesoAimstolearnabouttheworldofdevianceandcriminaljusticefromthevantagepointofthepeoplewhoarepersonallyinvolvedinsuchactivitiesoProvidesasenseofthecriminalasahumanbeingsomeonewhoisoftenmotivatedbyambitionsanddesiresthatarefamiliartoeveryoneThelimitationsofethnographicresearchoThefactthatittendstofocusonindividualswhoarecomparativelylowonthesocialspectrumandthoseofelitestaturearemuchrarerbecauseoftheadditionaldifficultiesinaccessingsuchindividualsorsecuringtheirpermissionoResearchersdownplayhowindividualbehaviourcanbeshapedbylargerstructuralfactorsoIncrediblydifficulttoconduct
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