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Term Test 2 Study Notes (2).docx

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Sociology 1020
Kim Luton

Sociology: Term Test 2 Study Notes Gender (Ch.7) - Hughes says that masc/femn status is part of a 'master status' and that everything is filtered through gender identity Gender Stereotypes - gender stereotypes = giving characteristics to others on the basis of their sex - most characteristics fall into a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION , where most people fall in the middle of gender differences Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Structural Functionalism - gendered practices promote social stability (division of labour) and maintain order - Parsons: gender differences = integration of society where roles link people together for family - families need mother and father Symbolic Interactionist - all things are negotiable ie. gender identity (not fixed and immutable, ex. transexuals), gender roles, gender norms, masculinity, femininity - behaviour defined by gender appropriate norms and sanctions - androgeny: some take on masc and femn characteristics Marxist - Conflict - neither sex possessed the means of production - concentrating on equalities leads to divisions and conflict IMAGES OF SOCIETY Ch.19 If Men Could Menstruate - if men could menstruate then menstruation would become enviable, boast worthy and masculine - political policies would be crafted to fit the 'new lifestyle of males' - menstruation would have an impact on pretty much everything and the power justifications are limitless Ch.20 National Conversation in the Wake of Littleton is Missing The Mark - school shootings relating to a crisis in masculinity due to the over abundance of male perpetrators - violence is a male phenomenon which indicates that gender is a vital factor - issue is the construction of violent masculinity as a cultural norm - factors prevalent in the school system related to violence include: dominant displays of power and control, ridicule of lesser opponents, respect equated with fear and deference - shooters were ridiculed, marginalized, harassed and bullied - media shapes masculinity as a tough image Ch.21 Fraternities and the Collegiate Rape Culture: Why Are Some Fraternities More Dangerous Places For Women? - majority of rape cases are date or acquaintance rape - rape culture is a set of values and beliefs that provide an environment conducive to rape - generic culture surrounding and promoting rape - based on the assumptions that men are aggressive and dominant - double standard or sexual behaviour between the sexes - rape has a social basis where men and women create and recreate masculine and feminine identities and relations - fraternities = venue of high occurrences of rape - high risk fraternity houses have more members and more varsity athletes and more reports of aggression and physical destruction - gender relations in fraternities involve hooking up in terms of relationships - peer pressure and situational norms have influence - alcohol consumption was a key factor Family (Ch.10) - kinship: a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption ie. extended family - propinquity: spatial proximity ie. most will marry within 20 blocks of eachother Theoretical Perspectives Structural Functionalism - family performs these tasks and in effect society depends on families: - socialization, regulation of sexual activity, social placement, material and emotional security Conflict - family perpetuates social inequality and plays a role in social layers: - property and inheritance, patriarchy, racial and ethnic inequality Symbolic Interactionism - explores how individuals shape and experience family life - family living offers an opportunity for intimacy - family members share activities and build emotional bonds - courtship and marriage may be seen as forms of negotiation Feminism - family perpetrator of gender roles - rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically a cause for concern IMAGES OF SOCIETY Ch.15 Changing Families - marriage is occurring later in life and with less frequency - achieved characteristics (education and occupation) play an increasing role in life - causes women to delay marriage while they establish stable careers - extent of homogamy (people marrying people like themselves) - employment tends to predict marriage, belief that a successful marriage calls for two jobs - risk of divorce is higher when the partner's parents have separated or when the parents of the partners have higher education - greater independence of women facilitates divorce as well as low socioeconomic status since this means the exchanges in the marriage are less rewarding = divorce isn't viewed as negative - remarriage, widowhood, living alone Ch. 17 Experimental Family Organization: An Historico-Cultural Report on the Oneida Community - Oneida community had economic communism, group marriage, scientific breeding, sexual equality - all lived in a huge mansion = promoted togetherness - all activities in the mansion, emphasized the we as opposed to the I - selfless collectivism with roles assigned to each member - religion and spiritual devoutness united them - intercourse was arranged by a committee that men would submit to and have it organized for them if the woman agreed - eugenics program of scientific propagation
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