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Intro to Sociology Terms from Chapters 1-3

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Western University
Sociology 1020
Secil Erdogan

Chapter 1 Terms:  Class conflict: the struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes  Conflict Theory: generally focuses on large macrolevel structures and shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others  Democratic Revolution: began in 1750, it suggested that people are responsible for organizing society and that human intervention can solve social programs  Dysfunctional consequences: are effects of social structures that create social instability  Feminist theory: claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a person’s opportunities in life. Male domination and female subordination are determined by social convention and structures of power not by biological necessity. It examines the operation of patriarchy in both micro and macro settings. Existing patterns of gender inequality can and should be changed for the benefit of all society  Functionalism: stresses that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social structures. It underlines how social structures maintain or undermind social stability. It emphasizes that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences. It suggests that re-establishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems  Global structures: patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national law. They include international organizations, patterns of worldwide travel and communication and the economic relations between countries  Globalization: the process by which formerly separate economies, states and cultures become tied together and people becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence  Industrial Revolution: Refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in Britain in the 1780s. It involved the large scale application of science and technology to industrial process, the creation of factories and the formation of a working class  Latent Functions: invisible and unintended effects of social structures  Microstructures: are the patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during face-face interaction, families, friendship circles and coworkers are examples  Macrostructures: overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintances. These include classes, bureaucracies and power systems such as patriarchy  Manifest functions: are visible and intended effects of social structures  Patriarchy: the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men  Post-industrial revolution: refers to the technology driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all humans  Protestant ethic: the belief that religious doubts can be reduced, a state of grace ensured, if people work diligently and live humbly, according to weber, the protestant work ethic had the unintended effect of increasing savings and investment and thus stimulating capitalist growth  Queer theory: Argues that people’s sexual identities and performances are so variable that conventional labels like “male”,”female”,”gay”,”lesbian” fail to capture the sexual instability that characterizes that lives of many people  Research: the process of observing reality to assess the validity of a theory  Scientific Revolution: began about 1550. It encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the workings of society must be based of solid evidence, not just on speculation  Social constructionism: argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically or culturally  Social solidarity: refers to the degree to which group members share beliefs and values and the intensity and frequency of their interaction  Social structures: relatively stable patterns of social relations  Sociological imagination: the quality of mind that enables a person to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures  Symbolic interactionism: focuses on interaction in the microlevel social settings and emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances  Theories: tentative explanations of some aspect of social life that state how and why certain facts are related  Values: are ideas about what is right and wrong Chapter 2 Terms:  Abstract experience: the imaginary world of the mind  Concepts: abstract terms used to organize concrete experience  Concrete Experience: obtained by seeing, touching, tasting or hearing, sensory experience  Contingency Table: a cross-classification of cases by at least two variables that allows you to see, if at all, the variables are associated  Control Variables: identify the context for the relationship between independent and dependent variables 
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