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Fall test review for Sociology chapters 1-3

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Western University
Sociology 1020
Secil Erdogan

1 Chapter 1 Test Review Terms 3 Types of Social Structures 3 Types of Revolutions Auguste Comte Herbert Spencer Karl Max Emile Durkheim Max Weber Main theoretical traditions in sociology Goffman Mead Martineau Adams Chapter 2 Test Review Terms Research Cycle Main methods of Sociological Research Levels of Experience Independent/Dependent variables and helpful hints Positive and Negative, Spurious Relationships between variables False knowledge Chapter 3 3 tools used by early humans (survival kits) 3 Types of Ethnocentrism 3 types of norms Evolutionary psychologists 3 step argument of human behaviour and social arrangements Sapir-Whorf Thesis Culture as freedom Culture as constraint Chapter 1 (3) Types of Social Structures 1. Microstructures: Patterns of intimate social relations, formed during face to face interactions, friends, family ect 2 2. Macrostructures: Patters of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintances, including classes, bureaucracies and power structures such as patriarchy 3. Global structures: International organizations, patterns of worldwide travel and communication and economic relations between countries, allows parts of the world to be connected culturally, economically and politically (3) Types of Revolutions 1. Scientific Revolution: began in 1550, encouraged the view that we must base our conclusions about society on evidence vs. speculation. The core of scientific method is using evidence to make a case for a particular POV 2. Democratic Revolution: began in 1750, suggested that people are responsible for organizing society and human intervention can solve social problems. 3. Industrial Revolution: began in 1780, created a host of new social problems that attracted the attention of social thinkers. It involved the large scale application of science and technology to the industrial process, the creation of factories and the formation of the working class Auguste Comte (1798-1857) Comte coined the term in sociology in 1838, tried to place the study of society on scientific foundations, a conservative thinker, motivated by strong opposition to rapid change in French society. He urged slow change and the preservation of tradition in social life. His scientific methods and vision of ideal society were evident in the sociology at its origins. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) The second founder of sociology, Spencer believed that societies evolve the same way biological species do (inspired by Darwin). Individuals struggle to survive, unfit die before they can reproduce. According to spencer, this process allows barbaric societies to become civilized. Deep social inequalities exist in society so societies can evolve, he argued. These ideas became known as Social Darwinism. Spencer remains an interest because he was among the first social thinkers to assert that society operates according to scientific laws- and his ideal society showed through his writings. 3 Giants of Early History Sociology (Marx, Webber, Durkheim)3 Karl Marx (1818-1853) The creator of Conflict Theory, Marx observed the destitution and discontent produced by the Industrial Revolution, and proposed a sweeping argument about the way societies develop. Class conflict lies at the center of his ideas. He argued that the owners of industry are eager to improve the way work is organized and adopt new tools. However the drive for profits causes capitalists to concentrate works in larger establishments, keep wages low as possible, invest as little as possible into workers. Thus, said Marx, a large and growing class of poor workers opposes a small and shrinking class of wealthy owners. Max Weber (1864-1920) A German sociologist who wrote his major works a generation after Marx and was among the first to find flaw in Marxs arguments. Weber noted the rapid growth of the service sector of the economy, with its many non-manual workers and professionals, many members of these occupational groups stabilize society because they enjoy higher status and income than do manual workers employed in manufacturing. Weber showed that class conflict is not the only driving forces of history, politics and religion are also important sources of historical change. FROM LECTURE: believer of symbolic interactionism, focusing on the micro level, interaction
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