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Soc Theory Levine Lecture #4

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Sociology 2240E
Charles Levine

Sociological Theory Thursday October 18th, 2013 Montesquieu Continued • 1st theme - social scientists must be able to separate themselves from their own world in order to see relationships with other worlds ◦ can't presume that what we are is the right way to be ◦ analogy of therapy - when you talk about a problem it leaves you and you can analyze the problem • 2nd theme - what people do influences how and what they thing • 3rd theme - inter and intra cultural relativity - if everyone understood that you must separate themselves than we've ready to start science • Montesquieu publishes his Second book "The Spirit of Laws" ◦ all governments are composed of : ■ nature : the way in which power is distributed in a society, how its used, who has it ■ principle : the sentiment that must motivate people in order for the government to function ■ what is power? the ability to make things happen regardless of what people want or do not want ■ what is authority? it is legitimized power. • if contracts work, it is because there is a sub contractual (willingness to full fill the conditions of contract) basis for the contract • the social world is full of rules and norms. but it is also conditioning us with different feeling states to obey those rules and norms • contract between the cashier and the customer, she doesn't give you the change because she has to, she gives it to you because she obeys the contracts • non social factors - geographical factors • power always exists • the equal distribution of power contains the ingredient to critique and argue everything - what is the motif that must exist if we all have equal power? Mutual Respect • only one way to respect another human being, check everything out with them in dialogue Government Type Principle Nature Non Social Factors Democracy Mutual Respect All Persons have Small the only way this power when it is Agriculture works equally is if the people distributed involved power and in it engage in authority mutual become the respect - same thing can't dialogical tell process the difference - I can influence you as much as you influence me Monarchy Honor King Moderate Size Area being Agriculture transformed into authority Despotism Fear Likely to be Large Area controlled by 1 Hunting person Laws as Commands
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