Review of Chapters 8-12, 14-15 (Midterm #2) Review of major concepts, topics, and definitions covered in Chapters 8-12 and 14-15 (everything covered on the second midterm). Includes highlighting and equations to make important points clear and noticeable.

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Western University
Statistical Sciences
Statistical Sciences 1024A/B
Mary Millard

Chapters 812 1415 02052012 011100 Chapter 8Sampling When sampling there are two key terms that you must knowPopulation is the entire group of individuals we want informationSample is the part of the population we actually collect info fromA sample selected by taking members of the population that are easiest to reach is called a convenience sample and often produce unrepresentative data A system error favouring of a particular outcome caused by a bad sampling design is known as biasSIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLES SRSA way for impersonal chance to choose the sample removes biasGives all individuals an equal chance of being chosenGives all possible samples an equal chance of being chosenTABLE OF RANDOM DIGITS A long string of digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 with these two propertiesEach entry is equally likely to be any of the 10 possible digitsEntries are independent of each other When using the table the steps are as follows 1 Label give each member of population numerical value of same length 2 Table read successive groups of digits of chosen lengthSTRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE First classify the population into groups of similar individuals called strata then choose separate SRS in each stratum and combine these Eg children is one strata and parents is another Multistage samples take this idea even further and simply involve many layers of SRS to create the final sample Eg choose area code phone number household memberCAUTIONS ABOUT SAMPLE SURVEYS Undercoverage occurs when some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample perhaps a full list of population wasnt available Nonresponse occurs when an individual chosen for the sample cant be contacted or refuses to participate
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