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[Thanatology 2200] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Thanatology
Course Code
THAN 2200
Professor
Darcy Haris
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Thanatology 2200
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Power:
Ability to do or act; to have authority to influence another person or organization; to have the
ability to control and have superiority or, to have an advantage over others
Power may be acquired bcuz of possession of knowledge base on aspects of health care, resulting
in prestige and authority being granted to the person
Important to keep in mind that in accessing socially sanctioned health care, a person enters a
system where there is an inherent imbalance of power between those who have knowledge and
those who do not have this knowledge
Paternalism & Beneficence
Concept of paternalism stems from this power differential from the statement “the doctor knows
best”. This phrase is the basis of beneficence
Autonomy
Refers to the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed uncoerced decision
Some will argue that it is nearly impossible for patients to give informed consent, as it is
impossible for there not to be some aspect of inherent coercion in the way treatment options may
be presented, offered etc .
Ethics vs. Morality
Morality assesses human behavior in terms of right/wrong. Good/evil. Usually according to
criteria shared by a cultural or religious group
Ethics provides a systemic process for identifying and analyzing human behavior in terms of what
ought to be done
Ethical dilemma involves making a choice between conflicting values or (sometimes) equally
unsatisfactory alternatives
o Solving a dilemma sometimes demands selecting the “least worst” choice
o Quality of life evaluations are impossible to avoid in palliative care
Basic Ethical Principles:
Respect for lif; “sanctity of life”
Respect for persons “human dignity
Respect for autonomy; “self determination”
Non maleficience; “do no harm”
Beneficence; “best interests”
Justice “fairness”
Viable options:
The set of viable options must be directed towards an end goal that is realistically achievable.
Viable options include:
o The treatment option
Definitions of Death
Harvard medical school defines death as inferred with the permanent loss of all brain functions
(who brain death), from brainstem to higher cortical functioning
o This definition is also the accepted definition of death by the law reform commission of
Canada
o This individual is not considered dead until the entire brain ceases to function. This
definition assumes that condition of the individual is irreversible
Ethical issues with Organ Donation:
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Because there is so much positive media attention in Western Societies for donation and the fact
that organ donation cards are highly visible, individuals may not feel that they really have
permission to decline donation
Euthanasia
One individual is asked to act in some way to end the life of another
Always involves 2 people
Euthanasia occurs when at least 2 people are involved and one of those persons dies
The key defining term of euthanasia is the intention of the participants in the actions that lead to
the death of an individual
In euthanasia, there are always two people who must act. This differs from suicide, where one
person acts to end his/her life directly. The diff. in euthanasia has to do with the roles that these
individuals have in ending the other persons life
o Active Euthanasia
intention is to actively do something to end suffering by ending a
human life. One deliberately commits an act that in itself casues the death
o Passive….
Withholding or withdrawal of an intervention that is necessary to sustain
life in order to
Distinctions:
Double Effect
the intention of the action is to bring about a good effect (ex. Relief of pain) but
the fact that it may also hasten death is ethically acceptable
Physician assisted Suicide/Death:
CARTER VS. Canada made a ruling that supports an individuals rights to autonomy in
choosing to have assistance in dying
Federal legislation allowing medical assistance in dying was passed in June 2016
Iatrogenic Trauma
Iatrogenic
anything that is induced in a patient by a physicians activity, manner, or therapy
Iatrogenic Trauma results from patients being treated by health care professionals in ways that
further compound
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