Art History Final Exam notes first half

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Visual Arts History
Visual Arts History 1040
Cody Barteet

1. FRANCESCO BORROMINI, façade of San -Italian Baroque Carlo alle Quafro Fontane -This work includes all the hallmarks of -Italian Baroque Caravaggio’s distinctive style: - Plebeian figure types -Borromini rejected the traditional notion that a building’s façade should be a flat frontispiece. - the stark use of darks and lights He set San Carlo’s façade in undulating motion, - the invitation to the viewer to participate in the creating a dynamic counterpoint of concave scene, Caravaggio positioned the figures on a stone slab whose corner appears to extend into and convex elements on two levels. the viewer’s space. This suggests that Christ’s -He emphasized the three-dimensional effect body will be laid directly in front of the viewer. with deeply recessed niches. - This serves to give visual form to the doctrine of transubstantiation—a doctrine central to - It is an engaging component inserted between Catholicism that Protestants rejected. interior and exterior space, provide a fluid transition between the two. 4. Artemisia Gentileschi, Susanna and the - Engaging with the environment , it faces an Elders intersection, and there is a narrow bay tracking the curve street -Italian Baroque 2. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint - Artemisia Gentileschi, one of a very few Teresa female artists of her time, used the story to stress the dark nature of men. -Italian Baroque -A masterpiece of Christian art of the Catholic - Artemisia takes the female perspective and Counter-Reformation portrays Susanna as vulnerable ,and - displays the motion and emotion of Italian frightened, while the men loom large, leering, menacing in her direction. Baroque art and exemplifies Bernini’s refusal to limit his statues to firmly defined spaces 5. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Slaying - Bernini depicted the saint a mingling of Holofernes spiritual and physical passion, swooning back -Italian Baroque on a cloud, while the smiling angel aims his arrow. - Narratives involving heroic women were a -visual differentiation in texture among the favorite theme of Gentileschi. clouds, clothes, smooth flesh, and feathery -In Judith the controlled highlights on the action wings—all carved from the same white marble. in the foreground recall Caravaggio’s paintings -the beams are coming down on the saint, and heighten the drama. (inviting viewers, use suggesting spiritual light, and th e heavenly of darks and lights) glory painted on the ceiling adds to the mystical -Emotional, engaging as blood spurts sense of the event . everywhere as the two women use all their 3. Caravaggio, Entombment strength to wield the heavy sword. 6. ANNIBALE CARRACCI, Loves of the Gods narrative complexity. -Italian baroque -Visually complex, cunning contrasts of true -Arranged the mythological scenes in a quadro spaces, mirrored spaces, and picture spaces riportato format—a fresco resembling ease l paintings on a wall. -Authentic in every detail, shows different levels and degrees of reality. -interpretations of the varieties of earthly and divine love in classical mythology. -The open doorway and its ascending staircase lead the eye beyond the artist’s studio, and the - Carracci derived these motifs from the Sistine mirror device and the outward glances of Chapel ceiling, but he did not copy several of the figures incorporate the viewer’s Michelangelo’s figures. Carracc i modeled the space into the picture as well. figures in an even light. light from beneath -Velázquez also mas terfully observed and seems to illuminate the outside figures, as if they were tangible, three-dimensional beings. represented form and shadow. Instead of putting lights abruptly beside darks, Velázquez -mixture of Raphael’s drawing style and lighting allowed a great number of in termediate values and Titian’s more sensuous and animated of gray to come between the two extremes. figures. It reflects Carracci’s adroitness in adjusting their authoritative styles to create 9. Peter Paul Rubens, Arrival of Marie de’ something of his own. Medici at Marseilles -Baroque 7. Pietro da Cortona, Triumph of the Barberini -Italian baroque -the sea and sky rejoice at the queen’s arrival in France. -This is the most important decorative -An allegorical personification of France, commission of the 1630s draped in a cloak decorated with the fleur- de- -Divine Providence appears in a halo of radiant lis (the floral symbol of French royalty), light directing Immortality, holding a crown of welcomes her. stars, to bestow eternal life on the family of -Rubens enriched the surfaces with a Pope Urban VIII. decorative splendor that pulls the whole - The virtues Faith, Hope, and Charity hold aloft composition together. The audacious vigor not a gigantic laurel wreath (also a symbol of only enlivens the artist’s figures, but also immortality), which frames three bees (the vibrates through the entire design. family’s symbols). - Rubens loved pomp and drama, which is - It shows both the triumph of the Barberini and shown by: depicting the arrival in elegant/ the personal triumphs of Urban VIII. flamboyant clothing, the extravagance of the golden vessel, and his marrying of real figures 8. Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas (The Maids with mythological figures. He is showing that of Honor) heaven and below the ocean are celebrating her arrival. His distortion of the women creates -Baroque movement and theatricality. Additionally, the - Las Meninas is noteworthy for its visual and classical building in the background adds prestige to the piece. energy of the group portrait 10. Anthony Van Dyck, Charles I Dismounted -The title (night watch) is a misnomer—
the painting is not of a nocturnal
scene. -Baroque -The painting’s darkness is due to the varnish - Van Dyck developed a courtly manner of g reat the artist used, which darkened considerably elegance that was influential internationally. over time -Van Dyck depicted the absolutist monarch - Rembrandt’s inventiveness in enlivening Charles I at a sharp angle so that the king,
a conventional portrait format. Rather than short man, appears to be looking down at the present assembled men in orderly fashion, the viewer. artist chose to portray the company more lifelike and organized, and thus, animates the - The portrait is a stylish image of relaxed image considerably authority, but no one can mistake the regal poise and the air of absolute authority -Shows great details as he managed to record the three most important stages of using a - The king’s placement in the composition is musket exceedingly artful. He stands off -center but balances the picture with a single keen glance 13. Jan Vermeer, Allegory of the Art of Painting at the viewer. -Dutch Baroque -The scene's 'theatrical' quality is deliberately 11. Gerrit Van Honthorst, Supper Party highlighted by the prominent curtain which is pulled back to the left as if revealing a stage -Northern Europe Baroque play. -Typical of 17th-century Dutch genre scenes -Jan Vermeer used the painting to give his opinion on painter’s place in society that -Caravaggio’s influence is evident in the painting was the equal of any other art. mundane tavern setting and the nocturnal light of Supper Party. -the picture uses linear perspective and chiaroscuro (the management of shadow and -Van Honthorst placed a hidden light source in light to create an illusion of three-dimensional his picture and used it to work with starkly forms) to create a three-dimensional depth and contrasting dark and light effects. solidity of form. -Supper Party can be read as a warning against -Vermeer used one of the world’s most the sins of gluttony (represented by the man on expensive color pigment for the cool blue hue the right) and lust of natural ultramarine. 12. Rembrandt Van Rijn, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch) 14. Georges de La Tour, Adoration of the Shepherds -Baroque -Baroque -Rembrandt 
amplified the complexity and -religious themes, religious imagery -very engaging, the work’s patron is placed in strategic position on the ground. The girl’s -use of light suggests a familiarity with dress is very detailed, we can even see her Caravaggio’s art garter belt. -did not paint halos around the heads of the -typical Rococo art, as the subject is about holy figures. romance, the landscape setting and figures are very luxuriant. -The
light is not spiritual but material: It comes
from a candle. Shows La Tour’s scientific 17. Abraham Darby III and Thomas F. observation of
the effects of light, as it throws Pritchard, iron bridge precise shadows on surfaces -the Enlightenment -La Tour eliminated the dogmatic significance and traditional iconography of the Incarnation. -The first use of iron in bridge design . The Industrial Revolution brought engineering -La tour eliminated motion and emotive gesture, advances and new materials that revolutionized he suppressed surface detail, and he simplified architectural construction. body volumes to achieve a supernatural calm. These stylistic traits are ass ociated with -The cast-iron armature that supports the classical and Renaissance art. roadbed springs from stone pier to stone pier. 15. Claude Perrault, Louis Le Vau, and Charles -The style of the grace ful center arc echoes the Le Brun, east façade of the Louvre arches of Roman aqueducts. -French baroque -the bridge’s cast-iron parts prefigured the skeletal use of iron and steel in the 19th -The design is a brilliant synthesis of French century. Visible structural armatures became and Italian classical elements . expressive factors in the design of buildings. -The facade has a central and two corner 18. William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene pavilions. The central pav ilion is in the form of a classical temple front. -The Enlightenment -The emphatically horizontal facade contrast to -This is one of a series of six paintings in which Gothic verticality. the artist recorded the marital immoralities of the moneyed class. -Its stately proportions and monumentality were both an expression of the new official French -Hogarth filled the house with witty clues to the taste and a symbol of centrally organized dubious taste of its occupants, chose objects authority. very carefully, ex. a curtain-shielded work that undoubtedly depicts an erotic subject. 16. Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing -the popularity of the prints is derived from the -Rococo subjects, the democratization of knowledge and culture the Enlightenment fostered, and the -outstanding skills in manipulating colors , the exploitation of new printing technologies that pastel colors create a sensuous scene. made the visual culture more affordable and widely spread. -Neoclassicism 19. Benjamin West, Death of General Wolfe -Presenting her children as her jewels exemplifies the Enlightenment fascination with -The Enlightenment classical antiquity and with classical art. -In portraying a contemporary historical subject, -She clothed her actors in ancient Roman garb he put his characters in contemporary costume. and posed them in statuesque attitudes within Roman interiors. The archi- tectural setting is - West blended this realism of detail with the tradition of history painting by arranging his severely Roman, with no Rococo motif in evidence, and the composition and drawing figures in a complex, theatrically ordered have the simplicity and firmness of low -relief composition. carving. -West presented this hero’s death in the service -The theme in this painting is the virtue of of the state as a sacrifice charged with religious Cornelia, mother of the future political leaders emotions. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, who, in the second century BCE, attempted to reform the -His innovative combination of traditional heroic painting with modern reali sm was effective and Roman Republic. influential. 22. Jacques-Louis David, Death of Marat 20. John Singleton Copley, Portrait of Paul -Neoclassicism Revere
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