ARTHIS 1040 - NOTES.docx

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Visual Arts History
Course Code
Visual Arts History 1040

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Textbook and lectureTextbook onlyLecture onlyART BEFORE HISTORYPALAEOLITHIC ARTIn cultures written before history must assume things about what the art meansWomen more common subjects than men but animals dominate artAlways depicted animals in profileAnimal facing left from the Apollo 11 Cave Namibia ca 23000 BCEoldest African paintings were portable objectsanimal in profile so that the head body tail and all four legs clearly visibleaim was to create convincing image of subject pictorial definition of the animal capturing its essence Human w Feline Head HohlensteinStadel ca 3000028000 BCE combining human and animal form powerful creaturesVenus of Willendorf Willendorf Austria ca 2800025000 BCE Nude Woman bc dont know religion of that culture venus may not be relevant to the purposeFunction just bc nude doesnt mean sexual objectFertility exaggerated breasts and hipsBreasts nursing concept of nurturing motherV Small bc nomadic tribesHead no idea maybe beauty weaving etcNo facial featuresCould be individual woman found others much slimmer focus on this one instead bc easier to make the assumption using gender normsWoman holding bison horn Laussel ca 2500020000 BCE potential priestess relief sculptureTwo Bison relief in caves Le Tuc dAudoubert ca 1500010000 BCEBison with turned head fragmentary spearthrower from La Madeleine France ca 12000 BCEantlers as a sculptural mediumv detailed extends tohorns eye ear nostrils mouth and hair on faceturned neck full 180 degrees to maintain the strict profileBison Altimira Spain ca 1200011000 BCE some of the oldestWhy cavespractical protect from elementsweatherMother earth connection to earthSeen as connection to spiritual realm or vaginal passage reproductionSpotted horses and negative hand prints PechMerle France ca 22000 BCEblew paint out of mouths leave hand print personal touchHall of Bulls ca 15000 BCEHall of the Bulls Lascaux France ca 1500013000 BCE trying to capture animal spirit and hunt it better bc understand itOverlapping bulls not created at one time stylistic variance ex Twisted antlersV Large space went through trouble to get up thereRhino wounded man disemboweled bison Lascauxca 20 1500013000 BCEpainting in a well hanging in weird placeWarning narrative ritual tombstone we want to read as narrative bc want to understand things how ppl communicate and language painted dots everywhereHumanoid body bird face dress of the hunter shamanAurochs horses and rhinoceroses Wall painting Chauvet Cave France ca 3000028000BCE or 1500013000 BCE mostly partial animals profile viewSeems to be a thought process evolutionary works bio cross sectionSpace recedes subtle sense of space not overlapped in way of last onesSuggest movement actionLamp with ibex design ca 1500013000 BCEEngraved stoneNEOLITHIC ARTGrowing crops water source population resources threat of conflictbegan to represent human figures as composites of frontal and profile viewsmonumental sculpture and stone architecture Great Stone Tower Jericho ca 80007000 BCEview over city military function outpostHuman Figure Ain Ghazal Jordan ca 67506240 BCEearliest large sculptures knownsome later figures had clothing rarely indicated genderRestored view ofa section ofLevel VI atal Hyk Turkey ca 60005900 BCE John Swoggercompound idea of family communityDeer Hunt wall paining atal Hyk Turkey ca 5750 BCE hunting narrative could be decorativelandscape w volcanic eruptionwatercolor copy ofa wall painting from Level VII atal Hyk Turkey ca 6150 BCEposs cityscape birds eye view map Diff btwn buildings enough to be indv Village Skara Brae PlanHouse Interior Bay of Skaill Scotland ca 31002600 BCEstones stacked on top to build structure compartmentalization distinct living spaces high functioningA lot of stone in N RegionsHagar Qim Temple Complex Malta ca 32002500 BCEone of the oldest stone templespostandlintelaltars stone statues of headless nude women one standing others seatedGallery leading to the main chamber of the passage grave Newgrange Ireland ca 32002500 BCECorbeled vaultingmegaliths of corridor leading to burial chamber beneath tumulus are held in place by their own weightStonehenge Salisbury Plain England ca 22501600 BCE dont know function where got stone megaliths from urban mound symmetrical specially structured pot astronomical purposebrought from far away stones have imp too some coloured post and lentil formatpot defence marking sun passage of time crops Not unique few complexes UKDont know if brought all at once or separatelyTHE ANCIENT NEAR EASTMESOPOTAMIAPresent day Iraq land btwn 2 rivers Tigris and EuphratesRise in civilizationsSUMERIANSfirst to build towering temple platforms ziggurats and place figures in registers to tell coherent storiesWhite Temple and ziggurat Uruk modern Warka Iraq ca 32003000 BCEMud bricks temple platformsWhite Temple probably dedicated to Anu sky godcentral hall cella with stepped altar where priests await the apparition of the deitySumerian Contract ca 2600 BCECuneiform writing Epic of GilgameshFemale Head Inanna Uruk ca 32003000 BCEPolytheisticStrong developments in vis artsPortrait or deity Imp things head in marblestone less imp in other stuff therefore not preservedUnibrow incised suggests inlaid w stonejewels previously Headdress suggested pot eyes painted or w jewelsHuman tendency to make representations of the divineWorshipers from the Square Temple Eshnunna Ca 2700 BCEHolding hands like in prayer large eyes in aweHolding container offeringLooking up for divine inspirationRemnants of kids leftSome objects inscribed becomes stand in for the ind as offeringFashion how presented themselves to public hair beards and long hair male bound females Presentation of offerings to Inanna Warka Vase Uruk Ca 32003000 BCEFigures potential class structureOne of earliest narratives defined in layers 3 registers dividing into sequenceCrops and animals people w baskets larger figures deity being offered objectsHierarchal scale more importantbigger deity biggest profileDeity doesnt have eyes as big as rest 3 horns on head signif divineNude males lower class slaves of conquered sign of humiliation Standard of Ur Tomb 779 Royal Cemetery Ur Iraq ca 2600 BCE
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