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Midterm

Visual Arts Studio 1020 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ascribed Status, Social Stratification, Nail Polish


Department
Visual Arts Studio
Course Code
VAS 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Study Guide
Midterm

Page:
of 30
SOC 1020 Test #2 Lecture Study Notes
Gender
Language
- Language is gendered and works to reproduce the gendered order
- Linguistic sexism: tendency to communicate sexist messages
o It’s easy simple, wasn’t hard
o He’s easy relaxed, laid back
o She’s Easy slut/whore
- Sexual connotation associated with neutral words
o Connotation she’s easy she’s an easy lay
- Women defined as sexual objects
- We characterize what we own (possessions) as feminine
o “The Other Women” was the name of a boat
- Language conveys meaning in many levels
- Various messages in gender
- Language defines men and women in 3 ways
1. Control
2. Value
3. Attention
Sex Codes
- Sex Codes: Premarital sexual standards
- Premarital standards, judge people
- Suggests gender norms and expectation
1. Abstinence standard
o Past
2. Double Standard
o Grants men the right to have sex
o Girls should still be virginal
3. Love Standard
o Found in today’s society
o A physical expression of love (and only for love)
o Mostly used by women
4. Fun Standard
o Sex is for pleasure
o Acceptable as long as both are willing
o Mostly used by men
Sex
- Sex: A biological category
- Hormonal differences
- An ascribed status
- Based on physiological differences
- Sex is determined at conception as a result of cell formation
Becoming our sex
- Sex is natural and biologically determined
- 1-3 % of babies are intersexed
o Hormonal therapy is used to force them into a sex (until 1995)
Often changed to females
o Now, often they let the children wait unless after puberty and let them
choose
Shows our discomfort with not knowing sex
A need to know sex
Gender
- Gender: The way we behave/think/feel
- Social category
- Based on social expectations for individuals
- Set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture and over time
within a society
- Gender norms: Rules specifying appropriate behaviour for each gender
o Gender norms using the right bathroom, spitting is for men, men
sending women flowers and opening the door, women wear nail
polish
Gender-role Socialization
- Gender continuum
o Masculine ----------------------------------- Feminine
- Gender scripts
Boys
o Masculine, aggressive, tough, daring, dominant
Girls
o Feminine, soft, emotional, sweet, submissive
- It is more acceptable for girls to be more like boys, then boys can be like girls
o Tom boys
o No word for the male “tom boy” equivalent
Gender Identity
Video: Gender Females Under Construction
Becoming our gender
- Gender Identity: Sex is ascribed, getting through the gender socialization
based on sex and learning how to perform your “gender”
- Master status: How we define ourselves
- Ascribed Status: Sex
- Achieved Status: Gender
- Powerful aspect of self-concept which develops in accordance with the
individuals gender and the social definitions of that gender within the larger
gendered order
Gendered Order
- Gendered order: set of structural relations through which people are
treated differently because of their gender
- Patriarchy: A system of dominance in which cultural, political and economic
structures have been created by men and are maintained for the benefit of
men as a group
o Women are often “other” to the norm (male)
Gender Intensification
- Gender Intensification: Process by which individuals are influenced to
hyper-differentiate themselves from the other gender in terms of appearance
and behaviour
o Hyper-differentiate: behaviour, dress, attitude
- Perpetuated by mass media and advertising in pursuit of money
o We see 3, 000 ads per day
- Adolescence is key period of this manipulation
- Psychological difference is prominent in teens because of the ads and the
pressure that they have to solidify gender
- 5% of females have the body type that we see as the norm in advertisements
o Cannot live up to the norm
- 1/5 women have an eating disorder
- 4/5 women have disordered attitude towards eating
- Most articles in magazines are for self-improvement in body
- Focus for boys is a large body size
o Fear of being gay
- Video: Tough Guise
Effects of Gender Intensification
1. Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that
they will later perform
2. Impossible standards leads to low self-esteem and high dissatisfaction
3. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female
relationship and perpetuates gender inequality
- If not followed, can be negatively sanctioned
Gender Stereotypes
- Stereotype: A trait or set of characteristics that’s applied to a group
o Occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics
simply as a result of being a member of a particular group
- Gender Stereotype: Social constrictions, social implications
o Attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of
whether they are male or female
Truckers are male, shoppers are female
Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences