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Visual Arts Studio 1020 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: The Sociological Imagination, Mechanical And Organic Solidarity, Auguste Comte


Department
Visual Arts Studio
Course Code
VAS 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Study Guide
Quiz

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Test One Review Notes
What is Sociology
Key Idea
- Concerns itself with theories about the social relations between
individuals and groups of people within a particular society
- Focuses on patterned group behaviour
Peter Berger
- Identify general patterns in the behaviour of particular individuals
- Unique individuals
- We all belong to categories
o Shape our lives
- Society acts based on the categories we are used to
The Sociological Imagination
- C. Wright Mills
- Stand outside of self, look through in perspective of others world
- Levels of analysis
o Biography
Individual story
Human Agency
Ability to act
o Milieu
Family, sense of belonging, community
Gemeinschaft
Sense of belonging
o History
Society/Structures
- Society has impact on you based on those three forms of analysis
Anthony Gibbons
- Structuration Theory
o Develops Sociological Imagination
o Structuration has ability to make us act
Double Involvement
- We impact society, and society impacts us
- Product
o We are a product of our society
- Producers
o We have the ability to change and be producers

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Sociological Theory
Sociology is
- Systematic study of social behaviour in human societies
- Goals
o Describe the social world
o Explain how and why
o Critique existing social arrangements
Emergence of Sociology
- 1838 Auguste Comte
- Up until not, church determined everything
- In the French revolution
- Change from a manual labour society to a manufactured society
- Positivism = means to understand the world based on science
What is a Theory?
- Statement of how and why certain facts are related
- Acts as a lens
- Based on theoretical paradigms
o Basic image of society guiding thinking and research
Note:
- Durkheim
o Suicide rates related to facts about social solidary
Social solidary = ties to community, friends, milieu
o EXPAND ON HIS VARIOUS REASONINGS
Theoretical Paradigms
- Structural Functionalism
- Conflict Theory
- Symbolic Interatctionism
- Feminism

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Structural Functionalism
- A macro-level orientation
- Views society as a complex system
- Broad patterns shape society as a whole
- Structures = stable patterns of social behaviour
o Gender, race, class etc.
o Have impact based on categories
o Bases of status in society
- Institutions = subsystems of enduring patterns of social relationships
o Education, government, economic etc.
o Institutions shape structures
The Stability Equilibrium
- How do structures/institutions maintain stability
- Family ensures a new generation, socialize them
- Want slow change (evolution, not revolution)
o So that everything can adapt
- Everyone/thing has a function or purpose
- Changes in one structure of institution provoke changes in other
o Change is disruptive
Institutions
- Have manifest and Latent functions
o Manifest open, stated, conscious functions of institutions
Involve intended, recognized consequences of an aspect of
society
o Latent unconscious or unintended functions
Hidden purposes of an institution
General
- Eufunction = A positive benefit for society maintaining equilibrium
- Dysfunction = Element or process that may disrupt social system or reduce
its stability
o Divorce is a family dysfunction
- Why is a class system functional?
o Creates competition
o Gives a sense of belonging
Critiques
- Too broad
- Ignores inequalities of social class, race and gender
- Operates only on the level of society (macro)
o Ignores individuals (micro)
- Assumes natural order (benign)
- Stability at expense of conflict
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