Test #2 LECTURE Notes All lecture notes following the first test.

30 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Visual Arts Studio
Visual Arts Studio 1020
Kim Luton

SOC 1020 Test #2 Lecture Study Notes Gender Language - Language is gendered and works to reproduce the gendered order - Linguistic sexism: tendency to communicate sexist messages o Its easy simple, wasnt hard o Hes easy relaxed, laid back o Shes Easy slut/whore - Sexual connotation associated with neutral words o Connotation shes easy shes an easy lay - Women defined as sexual objects - We characterize what we own (possessions) as feminine o The Other Women was the name of a boat - Language conveys meaning in many levels - Various messages in gender - Language defines men and women in 3 ways 1. Control 2. Value 3. Attention Sex Codes - Sex Codes: Premarital sexual standards - Premarital standards, judge people - Suggests gender norms and expectation 1. Abstinence standard o Past 2. Double Standard o Grants men the right to have sex o Girls should still be virginal 3. Love Standard o Found in todays society o A physical expression of love (and only for love) o Mostly used by women 4. Fun Standard o Sex is for pleasure o Acceptable as long as both are willing o Mostly used by men Sex - Sex: A biological category - Hormonal differences - An ascribed status - Based on physiological differences - Sex is determined at conception as a result of cell formation Becoming our sex - Sex is natural and biologically determined - 1-3 % of babies are intersexed o Hormonal therapy is used to force them into a sex (until 1995) Often changed to females o Now, often they let the children wait unless after puberty and let them choose Shows our discomfort with not knowing sex A need to know sex Gender - Gender: The way we behave/think/feel - Social category - Based on social expectations for individuals - Set of social attitudes that can vary from culture to culture and over time within a society - Gender norms: Rules specifying appropriate behaviour for each gender o Gender norms using the right bathroom, spitting is for men, men sending women flowers and opening the door, women wear nail polish Gender-role Socialization - Gender continuum o Masculine ----------------------------------- Feminine - Gender scripts Boys o Masculine, aggressive, tough, daring, dominant Girls o Feminine, soft, emotional, sweet, submissive - It is more acceptable for girls to be more like boys, then boys can be like girls o Tom boys o No word for the male tom boy equivalent Gender Identity Video: Gender Females Under Construction Becoming our gender - Gender Identity: Sex is ascribed, getting through the gender socialization based on sex and learning how to perform your gender - Master status: How we define ourselves - Ascribed Status: Sex - Achieved Status: Gender - Powerful aspect of self-concept which develops in accordance with the individuals gender and the social definitions of that gender within the larger gendered order Gendered Order - Gendered order: set of structural relations through which people are treated differently because of their gender - Patriarchy: A system of dominance in which cultural, political and economic structures have been created by men and are maintained for the benefit of men as a group o Women are often other to the norm (male) Gender Intensification - Gender Intensification: Process by which individuals are influenced to hyper-differentiate themselves from the other gender in terms of appearance and behaviour o Hyper-differentiate: behaviour, dress, attitude - Perpetuated by mass media and advertising in pursuit of money o We see 3, 000 ads per day - Adolescence is key period of this manipulation - Psychological difference is prominent in teens because of the ads and the pressure that they have to solidify gender - 5% of females have the body type that we see as the norm in advertisements o Cannot live up to the norm - 1/5 women have an eating disorder - 4/5 women have disordered attitude towards eating - Most articles in magazines are for self-improvement in body - Focus for boys is a large body size o Fear of being gay - Video: Tough Guise Effects of Gender Intensification 1. Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that they will later perform 2. Impossible standards leads to low self-esteem and high dissatisfaction 3. Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship and perpetuates gender inequality - If not followed, can be negatively sanctioned Gender Stereotypes - Stereotype: A trait or set of characteristics thats applied to a group o Occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics simply as a result of being a member of a particular group - Gender Stereotype: Social constrictions, social implications o Attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of whether they are male or female Truckers are male, shoppers are female Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences - Even when there is a statistically significant difference between males and females, for most characteristics there is more similarity than difference between the genders - Most human characteristics fall into normal distribution, where a small proportion of people rate much higher, a small proportion much lower, but most people fall in the middle (the normal curve with outliers at each end) o Looking at the math example, the proportion that overlap is far greater then the proportion of the outliers who do not - Schema: Mental shortcut, template o Schema about the elderly, that they all have white hair and are slow o Categorize people, stereotypes are in the schema - Gender Schema: Quickly categorizing due to gender due to expectations Example: Girls are hysterical, lesbians are dykes o Gender schemas tend to shape the way we notice, interpret and remember information according to our expectations about gender - Social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different capabilities - Differential gender socialization leads males and females to develop different skills and confirm the appropriateness of different roles o Womens thumbs were often in when holding fist, males out Gender Stratification - Gender Stratification: Social status and social roles that men and women occupy in society - Gender stereotyping leads to social attitudes about correct gender roles for men and women, leading to different statuses - Place in society is largely based on value we place on their roles of the division of labour o Ranking men and women differently - Families lead to gender stratification, but other institutions support and promote it Wage Gap - In 2009, women outnumbered men in the labour force for the first time - 28% of women and 11% of men work part time - Female occupational ghettos remain - Women receive 58% of university degrees - Women still do most of the unpaid work at home - Social/gender hierarchy, as it is common for men to be paid more and (generally) have more opportunities Womens earnings at a Percentage of Mens Earnings 2008 - This is because of stratification Single, young women .93/$1.00 Women working full time, full year .85/$1.00 Married women working part-time .69/$1.00 - It is becoming more even, as mens wages are being reduced on average, not an increase in womens salaries
More Less

Related notes for Visual Arts Studio 1020

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.