First Test Review All material covered in class until the first November test.

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Western University
Visual Arts Studio
Visual Arts Studio 1020
Kim Luton

Test One Review Notes What is Sociology Key Idea - Concerns itself with theories about the social relations between individuals and groups of people within a particular society - Focuses on patterned group behaviour Peter Berger - Identify general patterns in the behaviour of particular individuals - Unique individuals - We all belong to categories o Shape our lives - Society acts based on the categories we are used to The Sociological Imagination - C. Wright Mills - Stand outside of self, look through in perspective of others world - Levels of analysis o Biography Individual story Human Agency Ability to act o Milieu Family, sense of belonging, community Gemeinschaft Sense of belonging o History Society/Structures - Society has impact on you based on those three forms of analysis Anthony Gibbons - Structuration Theory o Develops Sociological Imagination o Structuration has ability to make us act Double Involvement - We impact society, and society impacts us - Product o We are a product of our society - Producers o We have the ability to change and be producers Sociological Theory Sociology is - Systematic study of social behaviour in human societies - Goals o Describe the social world o Explain how and why o Critique existing social arrangements Emergence of Sociology - 1838 Auguste Comte - Up until not, church determined everything - In the French revolution - Change from a manual labour society to a manufactured society - Positivism = means to understand the world based on science What is a Theory? - Statement of how and why certain facts are related - Acts as a lens - Based on theoretical paradigms o Basic image of society guiding thinking and research Note: - Durkheim o Suicide rates related to facts about social solidary Social solidary = ties to community, friends, milieu o EXPAND ON HIS VARIOUS REASONINGS Theoretical Paradigms - Structural Functionalism - Conflict Theory - Symbolic Interatctionism - Feminism Structural Functionalism - A macro-level orientation - Views society as a complex system - Broad patterns shape society as a whole - Structures = stable patterns of social behaviour o Gender, race, class etc. o Have impact based on categories o Bases of status in society - Institutions = subsystems of enduring patterns of social relationships o Education, government, economic etc. o Institutions shape structures The Stability Equilibrium - How do structures/institutions maintain stability - Family ensures a new generation, socialize them - Want slow change (evolution, not revolution) o So that everything can adapt - Everyone/thing has a function or purpose - Changes in one structure of institution provoke changes in other o Change is disruptive Institutions - Have manifest and Latent functions o Manifest open, stated, conscious functions of institutions Involve intended, recognized consequences of an aspect of society o Latent unconscious or unintended functions Hidden purposes of an institution General - Eufunction = A positive benefit for society maintaining equilibrium - Dysfunction = Element or process that may disrupt social system or reduce its stability o Divorce is a family dysfunction - Why is a class system functional? o Creates competition o Gives a sense of belonging Critiques - Too broad - Ignores inequalities of social class, race and gender - Operates only on the level of society (macro) o Ignores individuals (micro) - Assumes natural order (benign) - Stability at expense of conflict Major Figures Emily Durkheim - Society = social system - Society has basic needs o Survival - Social structures and institutions fulfill these needs - Predominance of society over the individual - Anomie = normlessness o People cant cope with change o Feeling of solidarity - Parts work together for solidarity and stability - Societies evolve from mechanical solidarity to organic o Mechanical do so based on tradition, agricultural society Everyone is doing the same thing, self sufficient o Organic everyone is doing something different, industrial society Need others and their trades to survive Interdependent on others to survive - In order to survive we need a sense of belonging without this we get anomie Suicide Durkheim - Suicide rates related to facts about social solidary Social solidary = ties to community, friends, milieu o EXPAND ON HIS VARIOUS REASONINGS - An indication of social problems o Wednesday, males, months of summer most prone
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