Women's Studies 2163A/B Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Sex Education, Masturbation, Desire

249 views49 pages
Women's Studies
2163A/B
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 49 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
WS 2163B
1
Marking Criteria for Discussion Post
- Engagement with reading and depth of understanding
- Connect reading to broader topic
- Analysis and evaluation
- Clarity of expression (style and grammar)
A Brief History of Sexuality
What Counts as Sexuality?
- When we talk about sexuality we are talking about the relationships/interactions between;
identity, actions, desires…
- Similarly, what counts as sex education is just as wide-ranging in definition
- Ex. should sex-ed be in schools?
Historically:
Ask the sexperts
- Role of religious discourse (role of the church)
- Church operates through a moral outlook on the world
- Manages sexuality from angle of family (Christian) morality
- Heterosexual marriage blessed by the Church
- Remains intact through powerful idealogies like monogamy, reproduction, purit,
sinfulness
- Folks are policed by the role of the church
- Role of medical discourse
- 18th, 19th century includes medical intervention into family life and the home
- Encyclopedic-style pamphlets/books are inteded for family
- Ex. little books intended for heterosexual, monogomous families that allowed
them to look up questions
- Even within marriage manuals, sex was presented as risky
- The role of medical discourse are still taking up some of the role of religious
discourse (moral ground) but claiming a scientific world view
Scientifics of Sex: Early Sexology
- Late 19th century sex researchers became known as sexologists
- Approving certain sexual discourses
- Magnus Hirschfeld, Richard Von Kraft-Ebbing, Havelock Ellis (1897) - early key thinkers
- Engage in projects of mass categorization for sexualities, sexual identities, and types
- ‘Preversions’ were pathologized - S/M, fetishism, exhibitionism, homosexuality, cross-dressing
- In turn, heterosexuality - monogamy sex for reproduction, etc. - rmained to focus of what was
‘normal’ and ‘acceptable’ behaviour
- Sexology is often criticized for being deeply rooted in power relations - not just descriptive but
prescriptive (‘you should like this” - here’s what you shouldn’t be doing and what you should)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 49 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
WS 2163B
2
- Sexuality is often regulated through institutions like the law, the state, media, education, family
- All play important roles in our live, particularly in regulating our sexuality
- Was once illegal to be homosexuality
- State attempts to regulate through:
- Marriage equality
- Access to abortion
- Media attempts to regulate through:
- Viewing reality TV, social media
- Education:
- What is the curriculum trying to hide from people?
- Institutions lay out what ‘normal’ sex/sexuality is, what is ‘appropriate’, what sex should
and shouldn’t include in a given time and place
- There exists a range of activities and desires that society values through a system of
punishments (legal sactions, social stigma, etc.) and rewards (privilege, rights, benefits, etc.)
- Ex. BDSM, Kink → was a preversion and now through pop culture (50 Shades of Grey)
have now been normalized
- Ex. Cohabitation before marriage - living with a man before marriage used to be
unheard of
- People use these discourses laid out by institutions to direct their practices - these scripts help
us make sense of, disrupt, resist, or inform our own sexuality
- Power relaitons almost always involved, where controlling and goerning sexuality can take
centre stage
Enter: Alfred Kinsey
- Referred to as a sexologist
- PhD in Biology from Harvard - studied the life of gall wasps
- Focused on how diverse the wasps were and questioned that it must persist in human
sexuality
- Interests in human sexuality requres belnding scientific and biological discourses with sociology
and psychology
- Looking for information on how to expand his activites and knowledge
- Wants to figure out whether humans are sexually diverse
- Kinsey believed that previous research on sex all hung on morality and not facts or evidence
- No empirical evidence that heterosexuals was the only way to have sex (norms)
- This narrow view of sexuality was at odds with his beliefs…
- 1938 - invited to teach new course on marriage (had to be married to sign up for the class for
the sole purpose of learning about sex)
- People would come to him to ask personal questions about masturbation…
- People learned that these non ‘normalized’ ways of having sex were not appropriate
- 1939 - given ultimatum by University of Indiana - stop teaching and commit to sex reserach by
getting it formally and ethically approved by the University
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 49 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
WS 2163B
3
- Shortly after, starts collecting the sexual histories of Americans. By early 1940’s, funds the
Institute for Sex Research at Indiana, hireas a staff o researchers, goes all across America
collecting sexual histories (estimates suggest around 18,000)
- Kinsey and team believed they were part of a crusade - sexual ignorance and lack of knowledge
must come to an end
- 1948 publishes Sexual Behaviour in the Human Male - Within 7 months, over 200,000 copies
sold - biggest book of that year, biggest science book ever sold
- #1 best seller list for many year
- Scientists, house wives, young adults were picking up the books
- Proving that no one was giving the general public information on sexuality
- Silence around sex is suddenly shattered - implicit in the report of over 18,000 interviews was a
simple principle - there is no good or bad, normal or abnormal
- Three main finding that challenged cultural beliefs about sex at the time
1) Homosexuality,
2) Extramarital affairs, and
3) Premarital sex
- REven more revolutionary? We don’t fit into neat categories, sexuality operates on a sliding
scale
- One of the most famous/talked about findings:
- 37% of men achieved orgasm in a homosexual experience
- Only 4% of those men cliaimed a homosexual identy
*Sexual identity and sexual behaviours and not mutually exclusive things
- “The development of a homosexual identity is dependent on the meaning the person attaches
to the concepts of homosexual and homosexuality”
- Desire is one thing, identifying with a particular social identity
- Different meaning can attach themselves to the same acts
- “Only the human mind invents categories and tries to force facts into separted pigeon-holes”
- Human mind as an institution
- “The only unnatural sex act is that which you cannot perform”
- Encouragement of sense of exploration
Sexual Behaviour in Human Female (1953)
- Idea that women are not sexual beings
- Kinsey believed that female sexual appetite were repressed
- Who were the women invluded in Kinsey’s female report?
- All of the 5940 women in the female report were white
- Excluded 934 histories of non-white women, and 915 white women who had served prison
sentences
- Diverse in other aspects like age, education, amrital status, religion, class, geographic region
- Attempt to justify excluding diversity of racial backgrounds
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 49 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.