Women's Studies 1020E Final: WS 1020E Final Exam Study Guide

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Women's Studies
Women's Studies 1020E
Kim Verwaayen

WS 1020E: Introduction to Women’s Studies Final Exam Study Guide Part I: Short answer with link (30 points) – Choose 3 of 6 items and i) Define/explain the term with reference to the text it comes from – Definition, contextualization, author/text ii) Discuss how the item connects to another theme, concept, or text from the course that you have not addressed – Definition, link/contextualization, author/text Part II: Longer short answer (30 points) – Answer two of the following three questions with sustained/detailed analyses and examples from the course – Write Part III: Essay (30 points) – Reference specifically to three readings from the course, answer one of the following two questions in a well-organized essay Topics & Readings: Topic: Gender & Sport 1. “Gendering” of sport: Expectations for sport performance in relation to what were firmly labelled masculine qualities: “aggression, physicality, competitive spirit, athletic skill” – Established from Victorian ideals that were deeply raced and classed th 2. Cult of domesticity/true womanhood: 19 century upper-middle-class & largely white ideal of women’s purity, domesticity, frailty – difference 3. Queer spaces (leagues) in sport: Challenge homophobia and create safer space, offer more freedom of gender expression, establish sense of community (Travers) 4. Katherine Switzer – Boston Marathon: Snuck into the marathon under “KD Switzer” – Wasn’t allowed to compete – Women legally weren’t allowed to compete until the 1970s 5. Gender conformers: Conforms to the gender binary of male or female – Involves surgery and reassignment for transsexual gender conformers 6. Gender transformers: Recognize gender as a fluid spectrum Reading: Ann Travers, “Queering Sport: Lesbian softball leagues and the transgender challenge”  Explores 20 -century “lesbian softball leagues” and what they offer queer women  Inclusion/exclusion policies of these leagues for trans players  “Sport” in North America was once considered a men’s domain  “The more success a woman achieves in the sporting realm (with some differences depending on the sport), the more suspect her sexuality becomes”  Successful women in sport are questioned of their femininity  Histories of discrimination against women in sport including homophobia have led to the creation of women-only spaces in sports and/or separate queer spaces for athletes  Lesbian softball leagues are the outcome of both the women’s movement and the lesbian and gay liberation movement  Qualitative study of the North American Gay Amateur Athletic Alliance – Women’s Division – Travers maps inclusion/exclusion of trans people o Open-ended interviews with 20 women from a number of NAGAA member cities (2003) o Questions about: Gender policies, policies regarding trans issues and people, experience with and attitudes toward trans players o Findings: NAGAAA’s Women’s Division Constitution is more inclusive than IOC (International Olympic Committee) policy – in 2006 IOC requires surgical ‘sex change’ – Conforms to the binary 2-sex system rather than queering it o Women’s Division recognizes the self-identification of trans athletes as FEMALE for criteria for inclusion Topic: Gendered Double Standards and Sexual Empowerment 1. Neoliberalism and women: Neoliberal emphasis on the sexual subject: Women are no longer victims of patriarchal objectification, they assume their own sexual power, they have a choice – Mentally presents that the individual is accountable rather than structural accountability for reality – Power is at the center of self-objectification – Presenting oneself of a sexual subject gives women power – Agents of their own sexuality 2. Sexting: Blend of sex and texting – Sharing, producing, circulating – Sexually suggestive material with words and images via mobile devices and the internet 3. Aggravating sexting: Explicit photos circulated through digital media as a form of bullying/harassment 4. Consent: The voluntary agreement of the complainant to engage in the sexual activity in question 5. Rape culture: The idea that sexual violence is commonplace, and that socio-cultural norms and practices deny, minimize, trivialize, make comedic, eroticize or activity promote sexual assault. Rape culture is what makes sexual violence possible – Promotes victim blaming 6. Gendered visual hierarchies: Gendered biases in how a commercialised digital culture based on visual images can promote hierarchal comparison, ranking, competition and stereotyping of female faces/bodies – With the visual appearance of bodies as subjects in contemporary visual culture (media), hierarchies are gendered and women are more subject to visual policing and visual hierarchies Reading: Jessica Ringrose, “Teen Girls, Sexual Double Standards, and Sexting”  Qualitative research approach on youth sexting o Sample: 35 participants; from “two multicultural state schools” in London, UK – Year 8/10 students, boys and girls o Focus groups and “follow-up” individual interviews; close reading of messages and images on Facebook and BB Messenger o Aim: Understand complex issues related to gender, sexting, and youth – Explore gendered effects of sexting  Argues discourses and practices around sexting “reproduce moral norms… constructing girls’ sexuality as a particular problem to be surveilled and regulated  Young people mediated by mobile technology and how it is changing teens’ sexual cultures  Devaluation of girls who send provocative or explicit images – Urging to send images and then devaluation in response  Boys gain popularity and forms of power in relation to the sexts they receive  Girls images become a commodity subject to judgement as soon as they have circulated – Implications with respect to self, body, promiscuity, policing of judgement from girls/boys  New norm of feminine desirability  System of ratings – Performing masculinity through the visual proof of image exchange Video: Sext-Up Kids: How Children Are Becoming Hypersexualized  We learn how to sexualize ourselves – Seeing ourselves as objects of someone else’s needs/desires – Consistently thinking about what we look like  The use of sexual power for attention  Cellphones are adult tools as the internet is so public – Children don’t know the difference between public and private places  Girls’ sexuality becomes a performance Topic: Reproductive Health & Justice 1. Prevent/eliminate pregnancy: Reproductive technologies – Birth control, sterilization, abortion 2. Monitor/regulate pregnancy: Reproductive technologies – Fetal monitoring, fetal surgery, ultrasounds, gene testing, screening 3. Create/enhance the chances of pregnancy: In-vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, surrogacy 1. Assisted reproductive technologies: Artificial insemination, In Vitro fertilization, and surrogacy 2. Artificial insemination: Conception inside the womb, functions through donor sperm (anonymous or known), simple, non-invasive – Sperm injected into the uterus – Can choose sperm/genetic history may be unknown and can cause concerns for health – Considered adultery, clinics say not properly screen for STI, HIV 3. In Vitro Fertilization: Conception outside of the womb “petri dish,” embryos implanted into the uterus, very stressful, highly invasive, no guarantees, very expensive – Risk of implanting the wrong embryo, using wrong sperm, if multiple embryos are implanted there is a risk of selective abortion 4. Surrogacy: “Pre-conception contracts” – Benefits for someone who needs someone else to carry the baby (gestational mother) – Surrogates lose control over their own bodies – Medications, diet, exercise – Grief when the surrogate gives the baby up, legal issues if the parents decide against the baby later 5. Bill C-6: “Anti-cloning bill” – The Assisted Human Reproduction Act – Makes “cloning” illegal in Canada and the commodification of reproduction – Buying and selling reproductive materials for “profit” – Sperm banks, egg donors – Illegal – Exchange of reproductive matter is done by exchange or for altruistic purposes – The “black marker” for reproduction still exists 6. Eugenics: The deliberate genetic manipulation of a population – Genetic “improvement” of humans, to “improve the gene pool” – The idea that you can eliminate the quality/traits in humans that are considered undesirable and enhance the traits in the human population that are considered desirable a. Positive eugenics: Genetically manipulate to increase desirable traits b. Negative eugenics: Genetically manipulate to remove undesirable traits – Likewise to genocide: Eliminated populations of people in the idea that they are not desirable 7. Reproductive justice: The complete mental, physical, spiritual, political, social, and economic well- being of women and girls, based on the full achievement and protection of women’s human rights 8. Voluntary motherhood: Coined by Margaret Sanger – Represents the initial response of feminists to their understanding that involuntary motherhood and child-raiding were important parts of women’s oppression 9. The Negro Project: Initiated 1939 by Margaret Sanger, founder of Planned Parenthood – Noted as a eugenic plan for America – Advocated racial supremacy and “purity” by encouraging the “fit” to reproduce and the “unfit: to restrict their reproduction – Contain “inferior” races through segregation, sterilization, birth control, and abortion – Aim of the program was to restrict the black population 10. Mississippi appendectomy: Black women were forcibly sterilized without their knowledge or consent – Were thought to be having an appendix procedure 11. Dalkon Shield: IUD (pregnancy prevention) put on the market in early 1970s – String was a source of bacteria and caused large infections, septic abortions, sterility, and even death – Sold to numerous countries in the global south at a discount but were not sterilized – One applicator per every 10 shields, instructions in only 3 languages Reading: Brian Savage, “Large Numbers of Natives Were Sterilized by Province”  Forced genetic and racial purification established by the Alberta Eugenics Board  Bill 26 calls for minimum compensation payments of $5000 for each victim Reading: Angela Davis, “Outcast Mothers and Surrogates: Racism and Reproductive Politics in the Nineties”  Reproduction is political – Some women can afford the new technology, and others cannot  Reproductive issues are not just about individual choice but structures  Suggests that “teen pregnancy” for socio-economically disadvantaged groups is less about issues of “choice” or specially, as often treated, “poor decisions,” than structural factors related to an oppression/opportunity pole  Slave economy denied motherhood to African women: “Slaveocracy” demanded of African women that they bear as many children as they were biologically capable – Stripped of their role as a mother – Laws passed to the effect that slave women children did not belong to their biological mothers Reading: Loretta Ross, “A Primer on Reproductive Justice and Social Change”  Loretta Ross – Founder of the SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Health Collective  Follows the reproductive justice framework  New perspective on reproductive issues advocacy: Indigenous women/women of colours have the: o Right to have a child o Right to not have a child o Right to parent the children we have o Control birthing options Topic: Overview of Feminist Theories – Liberal, Radical 1. Liberal feminism: Most popular feminist approach, believes women’s oppressions stems from denial of equal rights with men, believes women deserve equal rights as men and women share “core humanity” a. LIBERALISM: Celebrates human “reason,” focuses on individual rights, built on “Enlightenment” th th ideals of late 17 and 18 centuries – Argued the individual has the right to be protected and have their autonomy recognized b. Criticism: Focused on the lives of white, privileged, Western women presumed to be heterosexual – Limited view of the comparison of men to women – Equality, but not with all men (white, elite) - Exclusionary/ Didn’t seek to transform society; wanted to be included and to have more access to the public sphere c. Problematic: Foundations rely on individualism, patriarchy, capitalism, Eurocentrism, supremacy of science 2. Reformist: Liberal feminism is reformist – Works with existing institutions in order to stretch them to include more women – Campaigned for the same public sphere rights, privileges, and entitlements as men – Thought was that once these institutionally bound policies were in place, the rest will follow 3. Compulsory Heterosexuality: Liberal literature focuses on heterosexuality and excludes homosexuality and their issues – Recognized rights for women as separate from lesbian rights – “Divide and conquer” strategy: Separate interests so LGBTQ is at a disadvantage while heterosexual women become more powerful 4. 1975 Mexico City: UN international gathering of women to discuss women’s issues – Huge argument between Betty Freidan and a woman from Bolivia – This woman talked about underfed children and poverty in Bolivia as a feminist issue and Freidan disagreed and said it is an issue for women in the global South, but not specifically a feminist issue – Highlights the problem of liberal feminism and that gender cannot be the single aspect where we understand feminism 5. Mary Wollstonecraft: One of the earliest liberal feminist thinkers – Argued marriage wasn’t a choice because women were economically dependent on men, argued for rights to education for women 6. John Stuart Mill: Famous liberal thinker, applied liberal thought to women in book, “Subjection of Women” – Argued women are capable of reason and need the right to higher education – Arguing for the public sphere rights and access for women based on the idea that women have the capacity to reason 7. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Tried to bring liberal ideas in line with religion – Rejected religious institutions as oppressive to women – Published, “The Women’s Bible” – Cut off all the passages in the bible that were oppressive to women/subordinated women 8. Betty Friedan: Wrote the book, “The Feminine Mystique,” – Classic liberal feminist as text focused to largely white, middle class, suburban women and how we are going to make space in elite occupations 9. Radical feminism: Emerged from a context of civil rights and justice – Strives to change the institutions unlike liberal feminism – Radically anti-reformist – Refusal to separate the public and private spheres and the politics are not separable a. Men’s control of women’s sexuality: The root of women’s oppression 10. “The person is political”: Context of radical feminism – Maintained the connection between personal experience and larger social and political structures 11. Essentialists: Biologically entrenched specificity of women – Men and women are different “nature” 12. Constructivists: Men are women are only physically different and the differences in behaviour are due to socially constructed learned behaviour “nurture” 13. Separatism: Idea of radical feminism – Argues that society is so unfair and unjust that women need to separate off and create their own “women spaces”/”women-only communes” – Rejection of the patriarchy/men – Widely criticized as women cannot separate off from the men in their lives 14. Cultural feminism: Arguing for “women-only” spaces within a larger culture: “women-only” gyms, women’s television network – Because women are marginalized in larger culture, it makes sense to have women-only spaces Reading: Victoria Bromley, “So Many Details and So Much Reading: Feminist Theories”  Feminist theories provide us with the tools to think through complex issues  Liberal Feminism o Attributed women’s oppression to their economic dependence on men o Goal to overcome women’s oppression through gaining equality with men and fighting for women’s rights o Focused on the lives of white, privileged, Western women (presumed to be heterosexual) – Sought equality with men, but not all men – Privileged, upper class, white men o Theorized the public sphere where men resided and that women had to be incorporated from the private sphere to the public sphere – Didn’t want to look at the underlying structures and transform society; just wanted to be included  Marxist Feminism o Theory of class struggle and capitalist exploitation – Argued women were an oppressed class due to their economic dependence on men within the capitalist system – Women situated as the proletariat class and men as the elite bourgeois o Men controlled women as the subordinated as capitalism relied on both women’s productive and reproductive labour o Women bearing children meant that capitalists were assured of future workers  Socialist Feminism o Extended on the Marxist analysis and analyzed the separate systems of women’s oppression of capitalism and patriarchy – Identified them as different o Theorized women’s oppression could be ended through a process of socialized, where housework and childcare were supported communally through state funded programs  Radical Feminism o Inspired by roots of civil rights and justice o Strives to change institutions – Anti-reformist – Argues patriarchy is embedded in economic, political, and social institutions – Blamed the patriarchy and men o Argued the public and the private sphere cannot be separated as they are tied by the patriarchal institutions of society  Anti-Racist Feminism o Argues the failing of feminism is the assumption of the universalizing category of “woman” – Needs analysis of both gender and race – Perspectives of white privilege is racist and exclusionary o Prefers concept of womanist over feminist Reading: Lynn Gehl, “Persons’ Day: The Indigenous Famous Five”  The Indigenous Famous 5 had been working to eliminate the sex discrimination that Indigenous women have had to endure because of Canada’s racist, sexist, and oppressive colonial laws that determine who is an Indian as defined by the Indian Act and entitled to their treaty rights  While many are aware of the Famous Five, many are not aware of the efforts of the Indigenous Famous Five  Persons’ Day celebrates the efforts of The Famous Five for their role in gaining women’s rights in Canada – 1927: Challenged section 24 of the BNA Act’s definition of a person – Needed to expand to include female persons/Won the right for women to serve in the Senate  Topic: Feminist Theories, Cont’d: Black, Anti-Racist, Marxist-Socialist 1. Marxist feminism: Class is the result of structures of power – The condition of being rich or poor as a production of social economic relations – Marx, “The rich are rich because the poor are poor” a. Unlike liberals: We are not “free”, we are the products of social, political, and economic factors of capitalism – Ideology “the land of the free” teaches people to think in ways that disguise material relations and operations of power b. Marx did not: Theorize women as a separate class – Proletariat is sexless – Marxist feminist extend this analysis to the sexual division of labour: Women’s unpaid and underpaid labour c. Women need to have economic independence, women will be free from oppression only when capitalism and private property are abolished d. Weaknesses: Does not employ an intersectional analysis, the “nuclear” heteronormative model is not universal 2. Capitalism: Ownership of the means of production concentrated in the hands of the few = Separate classes 3. Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat: Bosses, factory owners, “HAVES” vs. Workers, labour force, “HAVE NOTS” 4. Meritocracy: The idea that society is built on a system of reward for accomplishment – Hard work is rewarded by society – “Bootstrap mentality” – Working hard to succeed a. Marxists CHALLENGE the idea of meritocracy, say it is a MYTH – Reinforces middle/upper-class faith in system and gives false hope for those outside it b. Creates the belief that people who don’t succeed are lazy – Form of victim blaming, results in internalization of blame – Poverty and failure are the inevitable of unfortunate consequences of an otherwise fair system 5. False consciousness: Refers to a state of mind that deceives people into thinking they are free – Makes the system seem universal, inevitable, natural – Discourages class consciousness and action/activism as a group 6. Class consciousness: The recognition of deep exploitation – There will be a class unity to resist 7. Sexual Division of Labour: The delegation of different tasks to men and women and the restriction of women to the private sphere domestic house work that is unappreciated and unnoticed – Specifies males to the public sphere as the “breadwinners” and providers for the household a. Idea: Man would be more expensive labourer to hire if he didn’t have women’s unpaid labour in home – Women’s underpaid labour maximizes profit 8. Reserve Army of Labour: Idea that women’s labour is not productive and secondary – Women are hired less (easily fired) and paid less – Devaluation of women’s work as “natural” and “unskilled” 9. Pink Collar Ghetto: The majority of women work in part-time jobs (little job security, little advancement potential, low wages) – Women’s underpaid labour 10. Socialist feminism: Agree Marx was “sex-blind” and did not address women – Argue we cannot simply slot women into his critique of capitalism – Argue we need to examine relations between economic structures and patriarchy – Economic order and patriarchy are deeply intertwined systems a. Marxist: See “women” in relation to class b. Socialist: Take a critique of deep patriarchy as central to their analysis but argue class analysis must be intertwined 11. Anti-racist feminism: Argue feminism is failing women of colour by excluding them – Notice of the “universal woman,” and insisted on the importance of intersectional approaches 12. Matrix of domination: Coined by Patricia Hill Collins – Refers to the overlapping/interconnectedness of social systems relating to race, class, gender (etc.) under one overarching structure of domination – About how power is organized in society – Intersectional point of view where identities are related which can result in a person being the oppressor and becoming oppressed at the same time – Ex. Emily Murphy was oppressed as a woman, but she was an oppressor by discriminating against visual minorities and those of different class a. An individual: May be an oppressor, a member of an oppressed group, or simultaneously an oppressor and the oppressed 13. Black feminist thought: Origins in North America in African-American women’s experiences and histories – Slavery, abolition, racism, patriarchy, and action for resistance – Recognizes the emergent power of black women as agents of knowledge – Black women in agents in self-definition and self- determination a. Knowledge is key: Integral both to structures of dominations and resistance against these b. Knowledge is power: And both individual consciousness and institutional knowing must be changed for true transformation to occur c. Patricia Hill Collins – Argues placing Black women’s experiences at the center of analysis offers fresh insights d. Rejects “additive” models of oppression: The idea that we can separate race, class, gender oppression e. Rather suggests the “matrix of domination” model: The idea of interlocking oppressions f. Criticism: Who can be a black feminist – Not white women but they can be allies – There is no singular black feminist standpoint as there are multiple experiences of sexism, racism that many black women have to confront – No experience is equal 14. Epistemology: In philosophy, refers to ways of knowing, theory of knowledge 15. Feminist epistemology: Key idea of the “situated knower” – Understanding that the socio-historical position of a subject produces their understanding of the world with particular ways of seeing and knowing – Relies on our assumptions and the position of our thinking 16. Feminist standpoint theory: Knowledge is socially situated, marginalized groups are socially situated in ways that make it more possible for them to be aware of things and ask questions than it is for the non-marginalized, research – Particularly that focused on power relations, should begin with the lives of the marginalized – Shrinks the distance between the investigator and the investigated – Idea is that beginning with the lives/experiences of women and marginalized groups can produce new ways of knowing 17. Black feminist standpoint theory: Makes black women’s experiences central – Personal, real, lived experience, dialogue, central ways of knowing – Knowledge is always mediated by factors related to an individual’s particular position in the sociohistorical landscape – Understanding oppression as interlocking systems – Each individual derives varying amounts of penalty and privilege from the multiple systems of oppression which frame everyone’s lives 18. Womanism: Not a rejection of feminist ideals, but a refusal to rejoice the Eurocentrism, heteronormativity, and ideals of “normal” – Acknowledgement and refusal of the term feminism 19. The “outsider within”: Built on idea of multiple identity, and both belongingness and exclusion in relation to particular communities – Collins work on black women working as domestics in the US for wealthy white families: Inhabits particular spaces and knowledge, but does not have “full” access to particular forms of knowing Reading: Patricia Hill Collins, “Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment”  Argues we need to understand “internalization” and the fight of the oppressor deep within us – The normative standards across all aspects of life  Black feminist thought demonstrates Black women’s emerging power as agents of knowledge  We must not only view black women as oppressed, but should acknowledge them as subjugated knowers who can use their voices for empowerment Reading: Morgan Jerkins, “Bree Newsome and the Myth of the Strong Black Woman”  Bree Newsome scaled the flagpole at the capital state building in South Carolina to take down the confederate flag – June 27 , 2015  Defendants say the confederate flag is a symbol of history and Southern heritage  It represents the 11 states that succeeded from the U.S. to protect the institution of slavery – Symbol of racism and white supremacy – Symbol of when people fought to keep slavery alive Topic: Postmodernist Feminism and Queer Theory 1. Postmodernism: Theory that tries to refuse totalizing definiti
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