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AN100 Study Guide - Final Guide: Omen, Participant Observation, Genetic Drift

Course Code
Amali Philips
Study Guide

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Key Terms and Concepts
Holistic: Characterized by comprehension of the parts of something as intimately interconnected
and explicable only by reference to the whole.
Ethnocentrism: The tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures from the
perspective of one’s own culture.
Denial of culture: (Naïve realism) All the people think the same throughout the world.
Cultural relativism: The principle that an individual’s beliefs and activities should be
understood by others in terms of that individual’s own culture. It was established as axiomatic in
anthropological research by Franz Boas in the first few decades of the 20th century and later
popularized by his students.
Fieldwork: Practical work conducted by a researcher in the natural environment, rather in a
laboratory or office.
Essentialism: A belief that things have a set of characteristics that make them what they are, and
that the task of science and philosophy is their discovery and expression; the doctrine that
essence is prior to existence.
Progress and development
Ritual: A dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings shared by a specific body of people
in a way that makes them seem correct and proper. (Symbolic actions).
Syncretization: The term given to the combination of old beliefs or religions and new ones that
are often introduced during colonization.
Kinshiprelations and systems
· Kinship: Refers to the anthropological, cross-cultural study of family composition, marriage
and descent patterns.
· Bilateral kinship: A system in which individuals trace their descent through both parents.
· Nuclear family: The family group consisting of parents and their biological or adopted
· Matrilineal kinship: A system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through
the mother only.
· Patrilineal kinship: A system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through the
father only.
· Lineage: Linear descent from an ancestor; ancestry or pedigree.
· Matrilineage: A lineage that is formed by tracing descent in the female line.
· Extended family: A family group based on blood relations of three or more generations
· Patrilineage: A lineage that is formed by tracing descent in the male line.
· Incest taboo: A rule that prohibits sexual relations among kin of certain categories, such as
brothers and sisters, parents and children, or, in some cases, cousins.
· Clans: Unilineal descent, groups whose members claim descent from a common ancestor.
· Exogamy: A rule that requires a person to marry someone outside his or her own group.
· Endogamy: A rule that requires a person to marry someone inside his or her own group (e.g.
a lineage, an ethnic group, a religious group).
Marriage Types
· Polygamy: A form of marriage in which a person is permitted to have more than one spouse.
· Polygyny: A form of marriage in which a man is permitted to have more than one wife.
· Polyandry: A form of marriage in which a woman is permitted to have more than one
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Marriage payments
· Dowry: The goods and valuables a bride’s family supplies to the groom’s family or to the
· Bridewealth: The valuables that a groom or his family are expected or obligated to present
to the bride’s family.
· Brideservice: The requirement that when a couple marries the groom must work for the
bride’s parents for some specified time.
· Partial inheritance: A form of inheritance in which the goods or property of a family is
divided among the heirs.
Social Identity: The view that people have of their own and others’ positions in society. These
learned personal and social affiliations may include gender, sexuality, race, class, nationality and
ethnicity. Individuals seek confirmation from others that they occupy the positions on the social
landscape that they claim to occupy.
Enculturation: The process through which individuals learn an identity. It can encompass
parental socialization, the influence of peers, the mass media, government, and other forces.
Nature vs. nurture: A phrase, coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1874, that references a long-
standing scholarly debate concerning whether or not human behaviours and identities are the
result of nature (biological and genetic factors) or nurture (learned and cultural factors).
Sociocentric/egocentric: A context-dependent view of self. The self exists as an entity only
within the concrete situations or roles occupied by the person.
Imagined Community: A term coined by Benedict Anderson in 1983. It refers to the fact that
even in the absence of face-to-face interactions, a sense of community (e.g. nationalism) is
culturally constructed by forces such as the mass media.
Commodities & gift giving
· Commodities: Traditionally, commodities are items that involve a transfer of value and a
· Principle of reciprocity: According to Marcell Mauss, gift giving involves reciprocity. The
idea is that exchange of gifts must create a feeling of obligation, in that the gift must be repaid.
Class: A status group within hierarchy; it is achieved unlike caste or race, but ascribed if born
into one (Trump and lots of money)
Habitus: (Pierre Bourdieu) Habits and dispositions created by our class position
Caste system: A form of social stratification and identity where individuals are assigned at birth
to the ranked and endogamous social and occupational groups of their parents.
Personhood: A social status that is assigned to individuals; the importance of self as inseparable
from one’s position in society; a human becomes a “person” through a rite of passage
Achieved status: An identity that is believed to be in flux and that is dependent upon the actions
and achievements of an individual.
Ascribed status: An identity that is perceived as fixed and unchanging because a person is
believed to be born with it. In Canadian society, race is often assumed to be ascribed at birth.
Structural violence: Paul Farmer Refers to the systematic ways in which social structures or
social institutions harm or otherwise disadvantage local individuals. Structural violence is often
invisible and lacking one specific person who can (or will) be held responsible.
Race: A culturally constructed form of identity and social hierarchy, race refers to the presumed
hereditary, physical, or phenotypic, differences are often erroneously correlated with behavioural
Racism: Refers to the discrimination and mistreatment of particular “racial” groups.
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Prejudice: Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.
Sex: Hormonal, chromosomal, or physical differences between males and females.
Gender: Culturally constructed ideals of behaviour, dress, occupations, roles, and comportment
for particular sexes.
Third gender: A gender given to someone who does not fit within strictly masculine or
feminine gender roles in a society that recognizes the possibility of at least three genders.
Hegemonic masculinity: Refers to ideals and norms of masculinity in a society, which are often
privileged over others.
Feminization of labour: Visibility in the labour force, but integrated in unequal terms. Ex., care
work, factory work, IT and call centres; not doing actual hard labour.
Globalization: Defined by Anthony Giddens as the intensification of worldwide social relations
that link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring
many miles away, and vice versa.
World Trade Organization: Promotes peace, stops governments from lobbying, handles
disputes between nations, free trade rules
Neoliberalism: An economic philosophy that argues for minimal government involvement in the
economy and greatly accelerated economic growth. Well-being, neoliberals’ entrepreneurs to
operate in a framework of strong property rights, free markets, and free trade.
Market Externality: Costs that are not included in the prices people pay, for example, health
risks and environmental degradation.
Nation-state: A political community that has clearly defined territorial borders and centralized
National identity: A sense of a nation as cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive
traditions, culture, and language.
Transnational: Involving more than one nation-state; reaching beyond or transcending national
Diaspora: A population whose members are dispersed and living outside their homeland.
Migration: Movement of people to a new area or country in order to find work or better living
Immigration: The action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country.
Multiculturalism: A term that Eva Mackey defines as a Canadian policy in which all
hyphenated cultures, such as African-Canadian and French-Canadian, are described and
celebrated as part of a “cultural mosaic.” Contrast with the “cultural melting pot” image that is
used in the United States.
Indigenism: Refers to an international, collaborative movement that aims to protect the rights
and livelihoods of Indigenous peoples.
Hegemony: Leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others.
Authority: The power or right to give orders, make decisions, and enforce obedience.
Law: The culture knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents who have the
recognized authority.
Forms of dispute resolution
· “Self redress”: Legal right to settle among themselves or by a third party
· Negotiation (between parties): Two neighbours solve a boundary dispute
· Mediation (by a third party): Can help but cannot dispose decisions on disputants
· Moots: Informal community meetings at which parties to a dispute are heard and the attendees
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