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Study Guide

AN100- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 118 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
AN100
Professor
Amalia Philips
Study Guide
Midterm

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WLU
AN100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BIO 111 TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE: ECOLOGY
THE BIOSPHERE
studying the biosphere contributes to the study of ecology. The
distribution of living organisms on Earth is not uniform. WHY?
Why are organisms distributed in patches? Think of Canada vs Rain
Forrest.
o ABIOTIC factors (for uneven distribution) to consider:
1. The distribution of dry land is not uniform. There is more land in Northern
Hemisphere vs Southern Hemisphere, so we can assume there are more organisms
in the Northern Hemisphere.
2. Seasons are caused by uneven solar radiation, which is caused by the tilt of
Earth’s axis as it rotates around the sun. This means that the intensity of sunlight
is lower at higher latitudes. This accounts for temperature differences between
the equatorial habitats and your more northern or more southern areas. Radiation
from the sun is spread over more surface area at higher latitudes, so its
intensity is lower. The light rays also have to pass through more atmospheric
gases, which lowers the amount of radiation that reaches Earths surface.
3. Because of the uneven heating of the atmosphere, we have wind currents,
prevailing winds. There are areas where air rises as it warms up, then sinks as it
cools. This causes movements of air and in addition to the rotation of the earth,
these factors cause prevailing wind currents.
4. Wind currents and ocean currents can have profound effects on climate,
especially movements of water (because water has a high heat capacity). Water
can store and move thermal energy around the world. EX: The Gulf Stream ocean
current. London and North Equatorial are on the same latitude, but the climate is
milder in London because of the ocean currents that surround it. These
movements of water can really affect climate. EX: California current is cold.
5. Interactions of currents and geography influence climate. A prevailing wind
blowing over a mountain range can cause a rain shadow; which is when warm,
wet air coming off the ocean rises up a mountain range and produces lots of cloud
buildup and rain and you get a side with a wet forest, while on the other side, the
air will be dry and you will get a desert.
o Terrestrial Ecosystems’ assemblages of plants and animals: we find that similar
latitudes always have similar biomes (assemblage of plants and animals). (EX:
Canada’s pine forests are on same latitude as Siberia’s pine forests Species may not
be exactly the same, but the look of the places will be very similar. EX: Russia’s step
vs. US short grass prairie
There are many biomes in our Hemisphere.
1. Starting from the North Pole South, we have the Tundra. Tundra is a part
of the habitat that has permafrost-the soil never thaws, so there is a
permanent layer of frozen soil. Since water doesn’t drain in the soil, when
snow melts, it just puddles and the ground stays wet, boggy. Therefore, not
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many trees grow in the Tundra because their trees can’t dig down. There are
mainly sedges, small willows and marshy plants. There are lots of insects
and few animals.
2. Moving South, you encounter - Coniferous Forest.
3. Moving further (east of the Mississippi River), you encounter-Temperate
Deciduous Forest. In the North there are Sugar Maples in these forests
while in the South there are Hickory and Oak trees.
4. (west of the Mississippi River), you encounter-Tall Grass Prairie
(Temperate Grassland)
5. (further west), you encounter-Short Grass Prairie (Temperate
Grassland)
The assemblages of plants in these terrestrial ecosystems determine what
types of animals live there. Furthermore, the assemblage of plants is
determined by a combination of temperature and rainfall.
1. The two plants have very similar morphology because they recently evolved from
a common ancestor.
2. They have become adapted to similar habitats by natural selection.
D (F,T)
o A combination of amount of rainfall and average temperature is what
determines these biomes and makes them different from each other. (EX: low
temp all year- Tundra. lil warmer, low rainfall-Coniferous Forest. high temp, high
rainfall-Tropical Rain Forest. warm, low rainfall-Warm Desert)
(**stopped this lecture to do Biomes Video**)
NORTH AMERICAN BIOMES
o The largest, easily recognizable subdivisions of the biosphere are called
biomes. Each biome is characterized by a particular general type of
plant and animal community. These communities look much the same
wherever the biome occurs, but the particular species making up the
biome vary from place to place. This suggests the plants and animals
have adapted in similar ways to the environment. A biome is a collection of
similar and related ecosystems.
o 3 ways to look at a biome:
1. A biome is the largest subdivision of the biosphere.
2. It is a type of ecosystem or community shaped by a particular
combination of climate and topography.
3. A biome is a collection of smaller, similar, and related ecosystems.
1. TUNDRA adjoins the artic regions and North America and Eurasia.
beautiful, dotted with lakes and streams, mosses, sedges, willows.
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