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Study Guide

AN100- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
AN100
Professor
Amalia Philips
Study Guide
Final

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WLU
AN100
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1 - Anthropology Matters
Wednesday, January 10, 2018
1:45 PM
History
Important to reflect on the ways anthropologists have done research or acted in the past, self-
reflect on the positive and negative outcomes, and correct it moving forward
Critiquing earlier theories helps the theories grow or new ones prosper
Interest in other cultures proceeded the scientific phase
o Anthropologists and those who were interested in other cultures were separated in the past
o 19th century evolutionists
Henry Morgan, James Taylor, James Frazer and Franz Boas (Father of American
Anthropology)
Born during colonial phase
o Anthropologists were useful for the colonial prospect
Became a scientific discipline in the early 20th century
o Objective method
Has expanded its reach into many areas and small communities
Contemporary anthropology is involved in critical self-reflection of our role
Anthropology and Colonialism: Colonial Encounter
"anthropology was the outcome of a process which has made the larger part of mankind
subservient to the other" (Levi-Strauss)
o Ideological justification, scientific racism, race concept, Theory of Evolution
"anthropology is the science of culture seen from outside"
o Must be an outsider to objectively observe and research a culture
"objective outsider"
o Maintain a distance to remain objective
o "snap shot of a culture"
o Privilege is given to Western anthropologists
Anthropologists engagement with colonialism raised critiques
"the handmaiden of colonialism"
o Type of "applied colonialism"
How to rule better
o Anthropologists were participants as colonial advisers and researchers to fulfill the "colonial
project"
Scientific Colonialism
o Exploited difference for study and knowledge construction
Theories and concepts
o Confirmed superiority of Western civilization
o Professional advancement
What fueled interest in other cultures?
Curiosity and adventure (pre and post scientific)
Salvaging
o To preserve a culture/cultural traits before they become extinct
Studying survivals
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o Reconstructing the evolution of practices and institution (search for pure cultures)
Anthropology Is…
A multifaceted discipline (4 fields and applied
Study of humankind in all time (temporal) and places (spatial)
"what it means to be human" in a broad sense
Study of cultural variations and possibilities humans are capable of manifesting
The study of the differences (the particular) and the similarities (universal) in human cultural
possibilities
o Yet too much focus of either leads to judgement and flaws in perception
Flaws in Perception
Similarities
Manic realism
o Everyone perceives the world in the same way
** denial of cultural differences
Differences
Ethnocentrism
o Belief in the superiority of one's own way of life
** othering: denial of humanity at times
The Anthropological Perspective
Holistic/holism
o Cultures to be studied in the broadest possible way
o Everything that has an impact on the way of life
o Interconnections between people of a society
Comparative method
o Views humans across time and space
o Make the unfamiliar familiar, and the familiar unfamiliar
o Not culture bound
Refrain from using one's cultural lens to study and perceive others
Anthropology is based on extended fieldwork in a particular setting (sharing in other ways of life)
Using "participant observation"
Five fields of General Anthropology gives it a unique perspective
o Physical/ biological
o Sociocultural
o Linguistic
o Applied
o Archaeology, prehistoric and historic
Sociocultural Anthropology
Study humans in their social (society) and cultural (knowledge, ideas, values) settings
How societies are structured and how cultural meaning is created
Focus on all contemporary societies
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