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Study Guide

AN101 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Structural Functionalism, Sociocultural Evolution, Positivism


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
AN101
Professor
Amalia Philips
Study Guide
Final

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AN101

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Lecture One: Perspectives on the Human Condition
September 8, 10, 12
Athopology attes eause…
It eales us to auie koledge aout the hua oditios. It helps us
explain and make sense of human nature.
Acquire a particular perspective(s) on the same. To understand why people do the
things they do, because there are different ways of living.
Apply knowledge and perspective(s) to:
- Make things better; not to impose your own ideas
- Improve understanding to avoid making judgments
- Resolve problems such as poverty, discrimination, human rights violations, etc.
- Make positive changes/contributions
Athopology attes eause…CULTURE matters
Appreciation of cultural diversity tolerance
Promotion of cross-cultural understanding and reduce misunderstanding
- Less knowledge = less understanding and miss understanding
Enables cross cultural communication (the more you understand = communication)
Recognition of the logic underlying all cultures
- How cultures work (what is their specific logic)
Solving practical problems (applied focus)
Contemporary Relevance
o Global Village interconnectedness (what happens in one part of the world has an
effect on other parts of the world. E.g. economic recession)
o Study local manifestations of global changes
o Impacts of Transnationalism (when people go from society to society they bring
different cultures, diseases, etc.).
o Multiculturism in action (clash of values)
o Hybridity of cultural practices, ideas (combination of different cultures/practices to
make something new)
o Inequalities of class, gender, race, etc.
o Social changes brought on by globalization (what is popular today might not be
tooo... teholog, lothig stle…eethig is hagig.
New sites of research multi-sited transnational, Cyber culture, corporate culture
(how businesses work), popular culture (music & art), call centers (where people
service your needs from other countries), factories, immigration, reproductive
tourism (when something is illegal in your country/ not available in your country so
you go to another country to do the procedure), multiculturalism & more.
Reflexivity athopologists self i relation to those being studied. We need to
look at our position as individuals in relation to others.
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Ethis of studig othes – what right do we have to study other people?
Human rights vs. cultural relativism e ust e sesitie to othes ies
Use of anthropology in non-academic careers
Covers broad range of human behaviours, issues
Applying the anthropological perspective
- Expert witnesses in courts, consultants for the police, in advertising, good
business practices
- Sub-cultures, job environments, medical anthropology, development, health,
first nations, gender issues, etc.
Athopology is…
Study of humankind in all times (temporal) and places (spatial). Most
anthropologists came from Western societies and they studied non-Western
societies. Today, we study all societies and our own society and cultures
Portrayal of the endless cultural variations humans are capable of manifesting
Aims to describe i the oadest possile a hat it eas to e hua-p5
“iee of ultue see fo the outside – Levi Strauss. Anthropologists go into
specific societies and study them as an outsider to them.
Study of differences and similarities in human cultural possibilities. We all share
common humanities but we are all different in some ways.
Problems of Reductionism
Differences
- Ethnocentrism, denial of humanity
- The supeioit ad oetess of oes o a of life, ais
The saage slot
Similarities
- Naïve realism (idea that every person/culture thinks the same way. Denying that
diversity exists, even though it does. Need balance), global culture
- Everyone perceives the world the same
The Human Condition/Nature
* See Theories of human nature chart in textbook figure 1.2 *
Perspectives
Dualism: human nature has two parts; rooted in western thought since Plato. (The
philosophical view that reality consists of two equal and irreducible forces).
Idealism: reduces human nature to ideas or mind that produces them (The
philosophical view that ideas or the mind that produces such ideas constitute the
essence of human nature).
Materialism: reduces human nature to genes (biology) or material forces
(environment, history, material production) (the philosophical view that the
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