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AN101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Proxemics, Kinesics, Pastoralism

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Victor Gulewitsch
Study Guide

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AN101 Midterm 2 Review
Chapter 4: Language and Communication
Displacement: Describing actions and objects that
occurred in another time and place.
Language: A system of communication using sounds
or gestures put together in meaningful ways according
to a set of rules.
Symbols: Sounds or gestures that stand for
meanings among a group of people.
o“Open” to different meanings
oI.e. cross, swastika
Signals: Symbols or signs with a fixed meaning.
o“Closed” only one meaning
oI.e. stop and yield signs
Language Capacity: hardwired/innate set of
language and communication
oProductivity: Creative aspects of language (i.e.
stories, music, poetry)
oPhonology: Discreet sounds that make up
meanings (i.e. “fly” 3 phones)
Phonemes smallest sounds that alter
meanings (i.e. pit, kit, bit, pet, pen)
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Morphemes smallest units to convey
meanings (i.e. dog, cat) / words and
modifiers (dogs)
oSyntax: Rules of phrase and sentence structure
oKinesics: Body language, gestures
oProxemics: Cultural use of space/distance –
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language structures
oLanguage = culture = beliefs and thoughts
oThink in linguistic terms
Noam Chomsky: Thought and language structure the
Structuralism: Claude Levi-Strauss myth
oSoftware analogy we learn a word, and
download other words that relate to it
oI.e. day & night; hot & cold; life & death; nature &
culture; raw & cooked
Colour Terms: Berlin & Kay
oBlack and white
oBlack and white and red
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oBlack and white and red and yellow
oBlack and white and red and yellow and blue
oBlack and white and red and yellow and blue and
Dialect: Regional classes ways of combining
oPidgin: Combines and simplifies elements
(vocabulary, syntax, and grammar) of 2 or more
oCreole: More complex Pidgin that has become
the mother tongue of a significant population
Combined because of colonialism, trade,
missionaries, linguistic imperialism, and
linguistic nationalism.
oGender Aspects: man talk and woman talk;
power and control/dominance; questioning
Chapter 5: Subsistence
Patterns of Subsistence: Food-getting strategies
1. Foraging (Hunting & Gathering):
Mobility and technology
Camp organization
Division of labour
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