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Midterm 1 Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Amali Philips

Test Outline Multiple Choices True and False Chapter 1-3: Intro to Anthro; Diversity and Field Research Matching: anthropologists with their contribution... fill in the blanks {kinda} Key Terms: Chapter 1 Holistic: considers everything [mind, body, soul] to be important Reductionist: reduces the human complexity Anthropology: the study of humankind through their society and culture; temporal and spatial Ethnocentrism: believing your group is superior to others Global Village: global manifestation of global changes Trans-nationalism: immigrants; those who are now able to move to other countries Multiculturalism: brings problems of unwanted traditions such as sex trade to another country. Hybrid Practices: intertwines traditions Reflexivity: anthropologist relation to those being studied Evolutionary Perspective: believing that biological and symbolic processes will produce change over time Fallacy of Ethnocentrism: the opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct [the only way of being human] Cultural Relativism: The perspective that all cultures are equally valid and it can only be understood in their own terms [from the inside]. Absolute Cultural Relativism: the thought and doing of questioning cultural practices is not allowed Naive Realism: not seeing any differences between cultures [equality; opposite of ethnocentrism] Chapter 2 Arm chair anthropologists: having a theory but never tested it Enculturation: Capitalism: an economic system dominated by a supply and demand, market designed to create capital and profit Colonialism: the cultural/economic/political domination of people by larger, wealthier powers Political economy: economic interests underlay political control of natives and others o dominate countries political in order to dominate them economically Racial Determinism: Classifications of racial types. Race conceptused to explain differences and diversity Physical variations: mental capacity, social/cultural differences Diffusion: patterns of cultural borrowing, history produced cultural forms Culture area: a geographical region in which cultural traditions share similar culture traits Participant observation: emerging into a culture for a long period of time in order to comprehend its beliefs and behaviours. Chapter 3 Positivism: The view that there is a reality that can only be detected though the senses of reasoning. Also that there is a single and appropriate scientific method for investigating the reality objective knowledge  knowledge about reality that is absolute and true for everyone everywhere and anywhere [timeless and universal].However, NOT everyone will see the facts the same [Focuses on interpretations]. Does NOT consider values [what should be – the emotions/feelings] but facts [what it is – the science] Ethnographic present: description only valid for the time it was written in because cultures are constantly changing. Questions: Chapter 1 What are the subfields of anthropology? 1. Sociocultural: focus on contemporary societies a. Ethnography – written product of field research b. Ethonology – comparative study of cultures c. Ethnohistory – study of cultures using written documents 2. Biological: study of humans as living organisms a. Paleoanthropology – study of the human biological evolution b. Primatology – biological and social nature of our primate ancestors (mad cow disease) c. Forensic – study of skeletal remains for legal purposes (applied) 3. Archeology: the study of material remains and aspect of past cultures a. Prehistoric archeology – ancient cultures without written records b. Historic archeology – ancient cultures with written records 4. Linguistic: study of language 5. Applied: applying anthro knowledge to real life situations [solving human problem – Forensic anthropology] What are the basic foundation elements of culture? 1. Learned: via transmissions or enculturation – transmissions the ability to copy behaviour by observation; enculturation the process in which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and value 2. Shared: it clashes, meaning that something as simple as a ‘STOP sign’ in Canada might not have any meaning in another country. 3. Integrative? 4. Adaptive: culture must change as society and people change in order to meet the collective needs of individuals Symbolic: attaching meaning to objects, gestures etc. What is the use of anthropology in non-academic careers? - Covers a broad range of human behaviour and issues - Useful in subcultures, job environments, businesses, medical anthropology, development of businesses, health care, first nations, etc. - Applying the anthropological perspective. Chapter 2 In the explanations of diversity, what are the three differences meant deficient? o Polygenesis: different origins of humans o Monogenesis: biblical story of creation; degeneration- fell from grace o Evolution: stages of evolution, primitive vs. Civilized What are some of the key impacts? - Acculturation: loss of culture via culture contact (cultural genocide; IE residential schools) - New forms of exchange: money, wages, trade - Slavery: people became commodities - “white man’s burden”: colonial responsibilities to modernize - New social institutions: courts, schools, laws, police, family system What are the roles of anthropologists under colonialism? - Researchers - Administrators - Intelligence agents - Educators of colonialist adm
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