Study Guides (248,357)
Canada (121,502)
AN101 (20)
Midterm

AN101 Midterm 2 notes.docx

11 Pages
275 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
AN101
Professor
Victor Gulewitsch
Semester
Winter

Description
AN101 Midterm #2 Chapter 5: CULTURE, THE INDIVIDUAL, AND IDENTITY Perception: Organizing and experiencing information - Anthropologists are interested in the way people learn, see and make sense of the world - Language, thought and perception are linked to this - Reality vs. expectations, natural vs. supernatural, real vs. illusion - Seeing/experiencing through cultural expectations - Schemas: patterned, repetitive experiences (ex. Christmas, birthdays, weddings, funerals etc.) - Schemas become Prototypes: Examples of a typical instance, element, relation, or experience within a culturally relevant sematic domain – context helps us to understand/interpret prototypes. Illusion-perception is cultural Visuality - Learning to look and see by cultural rules – Abstract Art vs Garbage, Mona Lisa: Big deal? - Baule and looking, cultural variations and subtleties o The noun nian – “to watch”, the noun nyin – “a stare”, nyin kpa “a real stare”, the noun kanngle – “evil looks from the corner of the eye”, Nian Klekle “to cast a rapid glance” Cognition: Cognitive capacities and intelligence - The mental process by which humans can gain knowledge and the “meeting place of relations between the mind at work and the world in which it works”. - How people systematically Classify Cultural Knowledge o Ethnobotany, Ethnozoology, Ethnoscience, Maps, geography, medicine, supernatural forces - Taxonomies: a system that sorts groups of things (taxonomic units) into subgroups (taxa) in a way subgroups are mutually exclusive – all subgroups share a defining characteristic but at least one characteristic makes them exclusive to their own subgroup - Savages-Barbarians-Civilized: Ethnocentric, moral judgement, a line of progress, materialist assumptions, racist evaluations of humans - Elementary cognitive process: Mental tasks common to all humans without intellectual cognitive impairment – all humans demonstrate them - Functional Cognitive Systems: the cultural organization of elementary cognitive processes – culturally linked sets that guide perception, conception, reason, and emotion that work in a given cultural context - Two Styles of perceptual and intellectual activities o (Global Style) Field-dependent: way of viewing the world that first sees it as a bundle of relationships and only later sees the bits involved in these relationships (life) o (Articulate Style) Field-independent: way of viewing that it breaks up into smaller and smaller pieces, which can be organized into larger chunks (school) Reason and the Reasoning Process - Thinking: Distinct remembering or learning - Syllogistic Reasoning - culture and logic: a series of three statements in which the first two are the premise and the last is the conclusion which must follow from the premise o Reasoning styles differ from culture to culture Culture and Logic - How we understand a cognitive task, encode information presented to us and what transformation the information undergoes as we think – reasoning styles differ between cultures as well as contexts Emotion: Bodily arousal/cognitive interpretation – compromise of states, values and arousal - Cole and Scribner describe emotion in terms of functional cognitive systems (ie. Gut feeling, fear, creepy, positive feelings) Motivation: setting/accomplishing goals - Socialization: the process by which humans learn to become members of a group, both by interacting with others in the right way and coping with their behavioural rules that the group has established - Enculturation: the process where humans live with one another and must learn to come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling (culture) that are considered appropriate - The two are intimately connected and inseparable Personality/Self/Subjectivity: Variables of culture and personality - Self: the result of the process of socialization and enculturation for an individual – not always an autonomous independent self - Personality: “The relative integration of an individual’s perceptions, motives, cognitions, and behaviour within a socio-cultural matrix” - Subjectivity: an individual’s awareness of his or her own agency and position as a subject Subject positions of sexuality and gender: Gender roles and sex - Gender Roles: sets of behaviours that are commonly perceived as masculine or feminine within a specific culture - Sexuality: an individual’s sense of his or her own sexual orientation and preferences - Sex: The biological distinction between male and female - Gender: The cultural constructions of beliefs and behaviours considered appropriate for each sex - Sexual Practices: Cultural variation and norms Structural Violence and Social Trauma: The dark side of life - Structural Violence: Violence that results from the way that political and economic forces structure risk for various forms of suffering within a population - Social Trauma: Individual and group experience of negative, physical, mental and emotional effects resulting from powerfully disturbing occurrences caused by forces external to the person or group – P.T.S.D. - Paul Farmer “AIDS and Accusations” Chapter 6: SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS Marriage - An institution that usually involves a man and a woman, but could also be same sex couples, transforms the status of participation carries implications about sexual access, and economic ties – connection of the kins of both husband and wife - Legitimizes offspring, creates a new social group Marriage as a Social Process - Bridewealth: The transfer of certain important goods from the families on both sides representing compensation to the wife’s lineage for the loss of her labour and for child-bearing capacities – common in groups where the bride goes to live near or with the grooms kin (Brideservice is similar but implies that the groom will work for bride’s family) - Dowry: opposite of Bridewealth – what women bring into a marriage, often attract a good mate, start a household or maintain some independence - Endogamy: marriage within a defined social group (must marry a member within that culture, race or religion) - Exogamy: marriage outside of a defined social group Monogamy and Polygamy - Monogamy: A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one person at the same time – divorce and remarriage more than once is called “serial monogamy” - Polygamy: A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one person at a time (Male or female) o Polygyny: Marriage of one man to two or more women o Polyandry: Marriage of one woman to two or more men Family Structure - Non-conjugal Family: A woman and her children; the husband/father may occasionally be present or completely absent – could also be the man and his children where the wife/mother occasionally visits or is completely absent – fits with single parent families - Conjugal Family: A family based on marriage; at minimum, a spousal pair and their children - Nuclear Family: Two generations: One or more parents and their unmarried children – Mobile cultures (Foragers, modern workers, etc.) - Extended Family: Three generations living together: Parents, married children and grandchildren – farm family’s value this form, more settles, and persists over time (ie. Mennonites, Amish) - Joint Family: Brothers and their wives (or vice versa) along with kids all living together - Blended Family: Created when previously divorced/widowed people marry, bringing with them children from their previous marriages - Families of Choice: Often common law/informal, gay/lesbian – created over time by new kin as friends and lovers demonstrate their genuine commitment to one another Kinship and Systems of Relatedness - Kinship carries out the recruiting of group members - Providing residence rules - Provides intergenerational links - Helps to de
More Less

Related notes for AN101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit