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AN101 Midterm 2 notes.docx

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Victor Gulewitsch

AN101 Midterm #2 Chapter 5: CULTURE, THE INDIVIDUAL, AND IDENTITY Perception: Organizing and experiencing information - Anthropologists are interested in the way people learn, see and make sense of the world - Language, thought and perception are linked to this - Reality vs. expectations, natural vs. supernatural, real vs. illusion - Seeing/experiencing through cultural expectations - Schemas: patterned, repetitive experiences (ex. Christmas, birthdays, weddings, funerals etc.) - Schemas become Prototypes: Examples of a typical instance, element, relation, or experience within a culturally relevant sematic domain – context helps us to understand/interpret prototypes. Illusion-perception is cultural Visuality - Learning to look and see by cultural rules – Abstract Art vs Garbage, Mona Lisa: Big deal? - Baule and looking, cultural variations and subtleties o The noun nian – “to watch”, the noun nyin – “a stare”, nyin kpa “a real stare”, the noun kanngle – “evil looks from the corner of the eye”, Nian Klekle “to cast a rapid glance” Cognition: Cognitive capacities and intelligence - The mental process by which humans can gain knowledge and the “meeting place of relations between the mind at work and the world in which it works”. - How people systematically Classify Cultural Knowledge o Ethnobotany, Ethnozoology, Ethnoscience, Maps, geography, medicine, supernatural forces - Taxonomies: a system that sorts groups of things (taxonomic units) into subgroups (taxa) in a way subgroups are mutually exclusive – all subgroups share a defining characteristic but at least one characteristic makes them exclusive to their own subgroup - Savages-Barbarians-Civilized: Ethnocentric, moral judgement, a line of progress, materialist assumptions, racist evaluations of humans - Elementary cognitive process: Mental tasks common to all humans without intellectual cognitive impairment – all humans demonstrate them - Functional Cognitive Systems: the cultural organization of elementary cognitive processes – culturally linked sets that guide perception, conception, reason, and emotion that work in a given cultural context - Two Styles of perceptual and intellectual activities o (Global Style) Field-dependent: way of viewing the world that first sees it as a bundle of relationships and only later sees the bits involved in these relationships (life) o (Articulate Style) Field-independent: way of viewing that it breaks up into smaller and smaller pieces, which can be organized into larger chunks (school) Reason and the Reasoning Process - Thinking: Distinct remembering or learning - Syllogistic Reasoning - culture and logic: a series of three statements in which the first two are the premise and the last is the conclusion which must follow from the premise o Reasoning styles differ from culture to culture Culture and Logic - How we understand a cognitive task, encode information presented to us and what transformation the information undergoes as we think – reasoning styles differ between cultures as well as contexts Emotion: Bodily arousal/cognitive interpretation – compromise of states, values and arousal - Cole and Scribner describe emotion in terms of functional cognitive systems (ie. Gut feeling, fear, creepy, positive feelings) Motivation: setting/accomplishing goals - Socialization: the process by which humans learn to become members of a group, both by interacting with others in the right way and coping with their behavioural rules that the group has established - Enculturation: the process where humans live with one another and must learn to come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling (culture) that are considered appropriate - The two are intimately connected and inseparable Personality/Self/Subjectivity: Variables of culture and personality - Self: the result of the process of socialization and enculturation for an individual – not always an autonomous independent self - Personality: “The relative integration of an individual’s perceptions, motives, cognitions, and behaviour within a socio-cultural matrix” - Subjectivity: an individual’s awareness of his or her own agency and position as a subject Subject positions of sexuality and gender: Gender roles and sex - Gender Roles: sets of behaviours that are commonly perceived as masculine or feminine within a specific culture - Sexuality: an individual’s sense of his or her own sexual orientation and preferences - Sex: The biological distinction between male and female - Gender: The cultural constructions of beliefs and behaviours considered appropriate for each sex - Sexual Practices: Cultural variation and norms Structural Violence and Social Trauma: The dark side of life - Structural Violence: Violence that results from the way that political and economic forces structure risk for various forms of suffering within a population - Social Trauma: Individual and group experience of negative, physical, mental and emotional effects resulting from powerfully disturbing occurrences caused by forces external to the person or group – P.T.S.D. - Paul Farmer “AIDS and Accusations” Chapter 6: SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS Marriage - An institution that usually involves a man and a woman, but could also be same sex couples, transforms the status of participation carries implications about sexual access, and economic ties – connection of the kins of both husband and wife - Legitimizes offspring, creates a new social group Marriage as a Social Process - Bridewealth: The transfer of certain important goods from the families on both sides representing compensation to the wife’s lineage for the loss of her labour and for child-bearing capacities – common in groups where the bride goes to live near or with the grooms kin (Brideservice is similar but implies that the groom will work for bride’s family) - Dowry: opposite of Bridewealth – what women bring into a marriage, often attract a good mate, start a household or maintain some independence - Endogamy: marriage within a defined social group (must marry a member within that culture, race or religion) - Exogamy: marriage outside of a defined social group Monogamy and Polygamy - Monogamy: A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one person at the same time – divorce and remarriage more than once is called “serial monogamy” - Polygamy: A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one person at a time (Male or female) o Polygyny: Marriage of one man to two or more women o Polyandry: Marriage of one woman to two or more men Family Structure - Non-conjugal Family: A woman and her children; the husband/father may occasionally be present or completely absent – could also be the man and his children where the wife/mother occasionally visits or is completely absent – fits with single parent families - Conjugal Family: A family based on marriage; at minimum, a spousal pair and their children - Nuclear Family: Two generations: One or more parents and their unmarried children – Mobile cultures (Foragers, modern workers, etc.) - Extended Family: Three generations living together: Parents, married children and grandchildren – farm family’s value this form, more settles, and persists over time (ie. Mennonites, Amish) - Joint Family: Brothers and their wives (or vice versa) along with kids all living together - Blended Family: Created when previously divorced/widowed people marry, bringing with them children from their previous marriages - Families of Choice: Often common law/informal, gay/lesbian – created over time by new kin as friends and lovers demonstrate their genuine commitment to one another Kinship and Systems of Relatedness - Kinship carries out the recruiting of group members - Providing residence rules - Provides intergenerational links - Helps to de
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